Breast Feeding and Children's Intelligence

@article{Johnson1996BreastFA,
  title={Breast Feeding and Children's Intelligence},
  author={Dale L. Johnson and P. R. Swank and Virgil M. Howie and Constance D. Baldwin and Mary J. Owen},
  journal={Psychological Reports},
  year={1996},
  volume={79},
  pages={1179 - 1185}
}
Breast feeding was reported in 1992 by Lucas, et al. to provide advantages for the development of intelligence in children of low birth weight, possibly through nutrients or other biological factors found in human breast milk but not cow's milk. Research on breast feeding and intelligence in children of normal birth weight has yielded mixed results, probably because measurement of environmental influences has not been thorough and the range of intelligence components measured has been limited… Expand
Influence of Breast-feeding and Parental Intelligence on Cognitive Development in the 24-Month-Old Child
TLDR
It may be concluded that breast-feeding for longer than 4 months has a positive effect on the child’s mental development at 24 months of age, and parental intelligence also appears to influence cognitive development. Expand
Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: prospective study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis
TLDR
Breast feeding has little or no effect on intelligence in children and the mother's IQ was more highly predictive of breastfeeding status than were her race, education, age, poverty status, smoking, the home environment, or the child's birth weight or birth order. Expand
Breastfeeding and intelligence of preschool children.
TLDR
It is found that breastfeeding may be particularly important for the cognitive development of preschool children born small for gestational age, and breastfeeding was not significantly related to intelligence scores in the total sample despite a trend for longer periods of breastfeeding to be associated with higher intelligence scores. Expand
Breast-feeding and Mental and Motor Development at 5½ Years
TLDR
The observed nonlinear relationships showed that breast-feeding as the sole milk source for 8 months, compared with 2–8 months, was associated with poorer development in this sample, and the latter finding requires replication in other samples where long breast- feeding is common and socioeconomic status is relatively homogeneous. Expand
analysis, and meta-analysis children: prospective study, sibling pairs Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in
Objective To assess the importance of maternal intelligence, and the effect of controlling for it and other important confounders, in the link between breast feeding and children’s intelligence.Expand
Breastfeeding and intelligence of preschool children
TLDR
Investigating whether breastfeeding during infancy is a determinant of intelligence at 3.5 y of age found that breastfeeding was not significantly related to intelligence scores in the total sample despite a trend for longer periods of breastfeeding to be associated with higher intelligence scores. Expand
Influence of Breast-Feeding on Mental and Psychomotor Development
TLDR
Data suggest that breast-feeding for longer than 4 months has a positive effect on the baby's mental development measured at 18 months of age, and Parental intelligence quotient also seems to have an influence on cognitive development. Expand
Breast feeding and mental and motor development at 12 months in a low-income population in northeast Brazil.
TLDR
Full breast feeding at 1 month was associated with improved behaviour for two of 10 ratings tested: initiative with tasks and attention, and no association between breast feeding and motor development was found. Expand
Direct and indirect effects of breast milk on the neurobehavioral and cognitive development of premature infants.
TLDR
Infants receiving substantial amounts of breast milk showed better neurobehavioral profiles-in particular, motor maturity and range of state, and mothers providing more affectionate touch moderated the relations between breast milk and cognitive development. Expand
The effects of breastfeeding on cognitive and neurological development of children at 9 years.
TLDR
Breastfeeding was not associated with any crude IQ advantage or difference in neurological soft signs in children at 9 years, and the greater IQ score associated with breastfeeding is accounted for by confounding, with maternal and socio-economic characteristics particularly important. Expand
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References

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Breast-feeding and cognitive development in the first seven years of life.
TLDR
It was concluded that breast-feeding may be associated with very small improvements in intelligence and language development or, alternatively, that the differences may have been due to the effects of other confounding factors not entered into the analysis. Expand
Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm
TLDR
Children who had consumed mother's milk in the early weeks of life had a significantly higher IQ at 71/2-8 years than did those who received no maternal milk and this advantage remained even after adjustment for differences between groups in mother's education and social class. Expand
BREAST FEEDING AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT AT FIVE YEARS
TLDR
The influence of breast feeding on developmental tests at five years of age was assessed and it was concluded that breast feeding may have an effect on children's development atFive years: the effect is relatively small but resistant to attempts at statistical control. Expand
LONG‐TERM ASSOCIATIONS WITH INFANT FEEDING IN A CLINICALLY ADVANTAGED POPULATION OF BABIES
  • J. Pollock
  • Medicine
  • Developmental medicine and child neurology
  • 1994
TLDR
Results obtained from the 1970 British Births Survey support and extend results obtained in previous studies on long‐term developmental differences between breast‐fed and bottle‐fed children. Expand
Some Maternal and Child Developmental Characteristics Associated with Breast Feeding: A Report from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Child Development Study
TLDR
A study of some maternal, experiential, and developmental characteristics of 1037 three‐year-old children who were breast fed for varying lengths of time indicated that those children who breast fed longest had advantaged mothers and more developmental experiences. Expand
Breastfeeding and cognitive development in the first 2 years of life.
TLDR
A significant difference between bottlefed children, children breastfed less than or equal to 4 months and those breastfed greater than 4 months was found on the Mental Development Index of the Bayley Scales at ages 1 and 2 years, favoring the breastfed children. Expand
Feeding in Infancy and Later Ability and Attainment: a Longitudinal Study
  • B. Rodgers
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Developmental medicine and child neurology
  • 1978
Attainment tests completed by members of the National Survey of Health and Development (1946 birth cohort) showed that those who had been entirely bottle‐fed in infancy scored significantly lowerExpand
Mother's choice to provide breast milk and developmental outcome.
  • J. Pollock
  • Medicine
  • Archives of disease in childhood
  • 1989
TLDR
It is agreed with Gunn et al, that in addition to a routine scan at about 18 weeks, every fetus should ideally have a further ultrasound examination after 28 weeks' gestation. Expand
Peabody Picture Vocabulnry Test-Reviced
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  • 1981
Breastfeeding and intelligence
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