Breaking paragraphs into lines

  title={Breaking paragraphs into lines},
  author={Donald Ervin Knuth and Michael F. Plass},
  journal={Software: Practice and Experience},
  • D. Knuth, M. Plass
  • Published 1 November 1981
  • Computer Science
  • Software: Practice and Experience
This paper discusses a new approach to the problem of dividing the text of a paragraph into lines of approximately equal length. [] Key Method A system based on three simple primitive concepts called ‘boxes’, ‘glue’, and ‘penalties’ provides the ability to deal satisfactorily with a wide variety of typesetting problems in a unified framework, using a single algorithm that determines optimum breakpoints. The algorithm avoids backtracking by a judicious use of the techniques of dynamic programming.
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A page‐breaking algorithm is presented that extends the original Knuth and Plass line‐breaking approach and produces high‐quality documents without unwanted empty areas and an application to XSL‐FO is presented, with an extension of the language that allows users to drive the pagination process.
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A Probabilistic Line Breaking Algorithm
  • R. Bouckaert
  • Computer Science
    Australian Conference on Artificial Intelligence
  • 2003
It is shown how a probabilistic interpretation of an ill defined problem, the problem of finding line breaks in a paragraph, can lead to an efficient new algorithm that performs well and allows for easy incorporation of subtle typographical rules.
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Again, as with RUNOFF, many commands manipulate concrete page-oriented physical objects: groups of lines (filling, justification, defining length) and pages (breakup, numbering, defining height, multiple columnation, specifying headers and footers).
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A modification to the Knuth-Plass algorithm is presented to return several results for a given column of text, each corresponding to a different height, and steps to quantify the amount of expected flexibility in a given paragraph are described, to lead to a better overall document layout.
Transformational Programming and the Paragraph Problem
  • R. Bird
  • Computer Science
    Sci. Comput. Program.
  • 1986
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Review of "TEX and METAFONT, New Directions in Typesetting by Donald Knuth", Digital Press and the American Mathematical Society.
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