Breaking Short Vigenère Ciphers

@article{Schrdel2008BreakingSV,
  title={Breaking Short Vigen{\`e}re Ciphers},
  author={Tobias Schr{\"o}del},
  journal={Cryptologia},
  year={2008},
  volume={32},
  pages={334 - 347}
}
  • Tobias Schrödel
  • Published 2 October 2008
  • Computer Science, Mathematics
  • Cryptologia
Abstract Vigenère ciphers can be broken, if the key length is known. In trying to break the Vigenère cipher, Charles Babbage and Friedrich Wilhelm Kasiski found the length of the key by searching for periodical repetitions in the ciphertext to split the cipher into multiple Caesar ciphers. William Friedman's, “index of coincidence,” also requires an adequate length of the ciphertext to retrieve the key length. Both methods lack, if the ciphertext is short or does not include repetitions and no… 
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A simple formula shows that some accidental repetitions at distances unrelated to the period which may mislead the cryptanalyst are rather unlikely.
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