Breakdown of integrability in a quasi-1D ultracold bosonic gas.

@article{Mazets2008BreakdownOI,
  title={Breakdown of integrability in a quasi-1D ultracold bosonic gas.},
  author={Igor E. Mazets and Thorsten Schumm and J{\"o}rg Schmiedmayer},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2008},
  volume={100 21},
  pages={
          210403
        }
}
We demonstrate that virtual excitations of higher radial modes in an atomic Bose gas in a tightly confining waveguide result in effective three-body collisions that violate integrability in this quasi-one-dimensional quantum system and give rise to thermalization. The estimated thermalization rates are consistent with recent experimental results in quasi-1D dynamics of ultracold atoms. 

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