Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history

  title={Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history},
  author={Jean Luc Legras and Didier Merdinoglu and Jean-Marie Cornuet and Francis Karst},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
Fermented beverages and foods have played a significant role in most societies worldwide for millennia. [] Key Result Their genotyping at 12 microsatellite loci revealed 575 distinct genotypes organized in subgroups of yeast types, i.e. bread, beer, wine, sake. Some of these groups presented unexpected relatedness: Bread strains displayed a combination of alleles intermediate between beer and wine strains, and strains used for rice wine and sake were most closely related to beer and bread strains.

Evidence for Two Main Domestication Trajectories in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Linked to Distinct Bread-Making Processes

The results revealed that the domestication of bakery yeast populations has been accompanied by dispersion, hybridization and divergent selection through industrial and artisanal bakery processes and unveiled for the first time a case of fungus domestication where species divergence occurred through autotetraploidisation.

Ecology, Diversity and Applications of Saccharomyces Yeasts in Food and Beverages

The expansion of large-scale genomic and high-throughput phenotypic data on these strains will provide a unique resource for understanding their adaptation to their ecological niches and for elucidating the missing links between genotype and phenotype, paving the way for strain improvement.

Phenotypic Landscape of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Wine Fermentation: Evidence for Origin-Dependent Metabolic Traits

The emergence of the origin-dependent properties of the strains provides evidence for a phenotypic evolution driven by environmental constraints and/or human selection within S. cerevisiae.

A polyploid admixed origin of beer yeasts derived from European and Asian wine populations

The population genetic history of beer strains is examined and it is concluded that modern beer strains are the product of a historical melting pot of fermentation technology.

A Gondwanan imprint on global diversity and domestication of wine and cider yeast Saccharomyces uvarum.

A population genomics approach uses a collection of isolates obtained from fermented beverages and from natural environments on five continents to investigate the global phylogeography and domestication fingerprints of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The Geographic Distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates within three Italian Neighboring Winemaking Regions Reveals Strong Differences in Yeast Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Industrial Strain Dissemination

Surprisingly, a widespread industrial yeast dissemination that was very high in the areas where the native yeast abundance was low was found, indicating that industrial yeast diffusion it is a real emergency and their presence strongly interferes with the natural yeast microbiota.

Molecular Phylogeny of Yeasts from Palm Wine and Enological Potentials of the Drink

These primary and secondary metabolites of palm wine from different yeasts confirm the enological potentials of the drink even though higher alcohols and esters appear to be more in some wines when compared to palm wine.

Molecular profiling of yeasts isolated during spontaneous fermentations of Austrian wines.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autochthonous yeast population during spontaneous fermentations of grape musts in Austrian wine-producing areas and to contribute to the investigation and preservation of genetic diversity of biotechnologically relevant yeasts in Austrianwine-making areas.

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Different Grape Varieties and Winemaking Regions

The data show that grape variety is a driver of populational structures, because vineyards with distinct varieties harbor genetically more differentiated S. cerevisiae populations, and populations from vineyards in close proximity that contain the same grape variety tend to be less divergent.



Evidence for Domesticated and Wild Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

It is concluded that although there are clearly strains of S. cerevisiae specialized for the production of alcoholic beverages, these have been derived from natural populations unassociated with alcoholic beverage production, rather than the opposite.

Ecology of Yeast Strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae During Spontaneous Fermentation in a Bordeaux Winery

A small number of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to be capable of dominating the alcoholic fermentation in all vats of the same winery, independently of the grapevine cultivar and the time of the harvest.

Tailoring wine yeast for the new millennium: novel approaches to the ancient art of winemaking

In light of the limited knowledge of industrial wine yeasts' complex genomes and the daunting challenges to comply with strict statutory regulations and consumer demands regarding the future use of genetically modified strains, this review cautions against unrealistic expectations over the short term.

Analysis of yeast populations during alcoholic fermentation in a newly established winery

Wine yeasts were isolated from fermenting of Garnatxa and Xarel musts prepared in a newly established winery during the 1994 and 1995 vintages and showed the presence of Hanseniaspora uvarum and Candida stellata at the beginning of the process, although strains of S. cerevisiae began to predominate after a few days and completed the fermentation.

Contribution of winery-resident Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to spontaneous grape must fermentation

The origin of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are responsible for spontaneous grape must fermentation was investigated in a long-established industrial winery by means of two different approaches and demonstrate unequivocally that under real vinification conditions, the S. cerevisae strains colonising the winery surfaces are the ones that carry out the natural must fermentation.

Evidence for S. cerevisiae Fermentation in Ancient Wine

Results indicate that S.cerevisiae yeast was probably responsible for wine fermentation by at least 3150 B.C.C, which has major implications for the evolution of bread and beer yeasts.

Analysis of yeast populations during alcoholic fermentation: a six year follow-up study.

The analysis of the S. cerevisiae strains showed that indigenous strains competed with commercial strains inoculated in other fermentation tanks of the cellar, resulting in the continuous use of commercial yeasts reduced the diversity and importance of the indigenous S. continentaliae strains.

Analysis and Dynamics of the Chromosomal Complements of Wild Sparkling-Wine Yeast Strains

It is suggested that ribosomal DNA repeats play an important role in the changes in size observed in chromosome XII, whereas SUC genes or Ty elements did not show amplification or transposition processes that could be related to rearrangements of the chromosomes showing these sequences.

Determination of the Relative Ploidy in Different Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains used for Fermentation and ‘Flor’ Film Ageing of Dry Sherry‐type Wines

The full chromosomal karyotype of six enological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for fermentation and biological ageing of sherry‐type wines was studied, and the results indicate the presence of two, three or four copies of a chromosome in the industrial strains examined, and thus confirm that aneuploidy/polyploidsy is not uncommon in these strains.

Genetic diversity and geographical distribution of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from the wine-producing area of Charentes, France

Electrophoretic karyotyping, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and PCR amplification of interspersed repeats were used to study the variability, phylogenetic