Samples of the toxic Brazilian plant, Baccharis coridifolia, which is responsible for numerous cases of livestock poisoning in southern Brazil and Argentina, were collected during the growing season, and the toxicities in calves of the plant materials were correlated with the levels of macrocyclic trichothecenes present. Female plants in flower were considerably more toxic than male plants or plants not in flower. Plants not in flower were of intermediate toxicity. The female plants in flower typically contained 5-10 times the levels of toxins as were found in the male plants. In addition, six new glucosides of the macrocyclic trichothecenes were isolated and characterized. The most prominent glucosides, those of roridins A and E, were found in high levels in the female plants.