Brazil in black and white? Race categories, the census, and the study of inequality

@article{Loveman2012BrazilIB,
  title={Brazil in black and white? Race categories, the census, and the study of inequality},
  author={Mara Loveman and Jer{\^o}nimo Oliveira Muniz and Stanley R. Bailey},
  journal={Ethnic and Racial Studies},
  year={2012},
  volume={35},
  pages={1466 - 1483}
}
Abstract Many scholars advocate the adoption of a black-and-white lens for the analysis of racial inequality in Brazil. Drawing on a nationally representative dataset that includes race questions in multiple formats, we evaluate how removal of the ‘brown’ category from the census or other social surveys would likely affect: (1) the descriptive picture of Brazil's racial composition; and (2) estimates of income inequality between and within racial categories. We find that a forced binary… 

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