Branching of fungal hyphae: regulation, mechanisms and comparison with other branching systems

  title={Branching of fungal hyphae: regulation, mechanisms and comparison with other branching systems},
  author={Steven D. Harris},
  pages={823 - 832}
  • S. Harris
  • Published 1 November 2008
  • Biology
  • Mycologia
The ability of rapidly growing hyphae to generate new polarity axes that result in the formation of a branch represents one of the most important yet least understood aspects of fungal cell biology. Branching is central to the development of mycelial colonies and also appears to play a key role in fungal interactions with other organisms. This review presents a description of the two major patterns of hyphal branching, apical and lateral, and highlights the roles of internal and external… 
Hyphal branching in filamentous fungi.
Cell Biology of Hyphal Growth.
More detailed aspects of hyphal growth in fungi are introduced, including the emergence of the early endosomes, which emerge to perform essential additional functions as spatial organizers of the hyphal cell.
Reconstruction of Signaling Networks Regulating Fungal Morphogenesis by Transcriptomics
It is shown here that this strain serves as an excellent model system to study critical steps of polar growth control during mycelial development and a transcriptomic fingerprint of apical branching for a filamentous fungus is reported for the first time.
Establishment and regulation of polar growth in Streptomyces
It is suggested that this is part of a stress response that provides Streptomyces with a mechanism to dismantle the apical growth apparatus at established hyphal tips that encounter problems with cell wall synthesis and instead direct the emergence of new branches elsewhere along the hyphae.
Cell polarity and the control of apical growth in Streptomyces.
  • K. Flärdh
  • Biology
    Current opinion in microbiology
  • 2010
Comparative genomics reveals the origin of fungal hyphae and multicellularity
Using comparative genomics, it is shown that the emergence of hyphae correlates with multiple types of genetic changes, including alterations of gene structure, gene family diversification as well as co-option and exaptation of ancient eukaryotic genes.
The Organization of mitochondria in growing hyphae of Neurospora crassa
It was proposed that the observed features are governed by the microtubular network, while the primary function of mitochondria was to sustain the growth rate.
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This work has found that the A. niger RmsA protein is central for the polarization of actin at the hyphal tip but also of vital importance for the metabolism, viability and stress resistance of Aspergillus niger, suggesting that RMSA could occupy an important position in the global network of pathways that balance growth, morphogenesis and survival of A.niger.


Branching is coordinated with mitosis in growing hyphae of Aspergillus nidulans.
Tests of a Cellular Model for Constant Branch Distribution in the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa
This work described and tested a model in which the formation of a lateral branch in N. crassa was determined by the accumulation of tip-growth vesicles caused by the excess of the rate of supply over the rates of deposition at the apex, and found that branching in colonial mutants is dependent on growth rate.
Regulation of hyphal morphogenesis by cdc42 and rac1 homologues in Aspergillus nidulans
It is reported that Cdc42 (ModA) and Rac1 (RacA) share an overlapping function required for polarity establishment in Aspergillus nidulans, and it is shown that microtubules become essential for the establishment of hyphal polarity when the function of either CDC42 or SepA is compromised.
Regulation of Apical Dominance in Aspergillus nidulans Hyphae by Reactive Oxygen Species
Results support a model whereby localized Nox activity generates a pool of ROS that defines a dominant polarity axis at hyphal tips, and suggest that Rac1 activates Nox, whereas NoxR and Cdc42 may function together in a parallel pathway that regulates Nox localization.
Control of filamentous fungal cell shape by septins and formins
This work assimilates what is known about the function of these protein families in filamentous fungi and proposes that further studies in these organisms could answer some open mechanistic questions that pertain in general to eukaryotic cells.
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The extensive hyphal development associated with roots of host plants was shown to be due to the differential growth pattern described, and to precede the further cascade of events leading to appressorium formation and the development of a functional symbiosis.
Key differences between lateral and apical branching in hyphae of Neurospora crassa.
Maximal polar growth potential depends on the polarisome component AgSpa2 in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii.
It is suggested that AgSpa2p is required for the determination of the area of growth at the hyphal tip and that the extended internal domain plays an important role in this process.