Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?

@article{Wolfe2017BranchedchainAA,
  title={Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?},
  author={R. Wolfe},
  journal={Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition},
  year={2017},
  volume={14}
}
  • R. Wolfe
  • Published 2017
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
The branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are leucine, valine and isoleucine. A multi-million dollar industry of nutritional supplements has grown around the concept that dietary supplements of BCAAs alone produce an anabolic response in humans driven by a stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. In this brief review the theoretical and empirical bases for that claim are discussed. Theoretically, the maximal stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in the post-absorptive state in response to BCAAs… Expand

Paper Mentions

Isolated branched-chain amino acid intake and muscle protein synthesis in humans: a biochemical review
ABSTRACT Alongside a proper diet, ergogenic aids with potential direct and/or indirect physical performance enhancing effects are sought after for improved adaptation to physical training.Expand
Ergogenic Effect of BCAAs and L-Alanine Supplementation: Proof-of-Concept Study in a Murine Model of Physiological Exercise
TLDR
This study corroborates the use of B CAAs + ALA to support muscle health during physiological exercise, underlining how the relative BCAAs/ALA ratio is important to control BCAas distribution. Expand
Branched-chain amino acid and branched-chain ketoacid ingestion increases muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in older adults: a double-blind, randomized trial
TLDR
The postprandial increase following the ingestion of 6 g BCAA and BCKA is short-lived, with higher myofibrillar protein synthesis rates only being maintained following the ingesting of an equivalent amount of intact milk protein. Expand
Leucine-induced promotion of post-absorptive EAA utilization and hepatic gluconeogenesis contributes to protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of dairy calves.
TLDR
Results showed that leucine supplementation can promote post-absorptive EAA utilization and hepatic gluconeogenesis, which contributes to protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of dairy calves. Expand
Protein metabolism and related body function: mechanistic approaches and health consequences
TLDR
There is a tight control of protein intake, and human subjects and animals appear capable of detecting and adapting food and protein intake and metabolism in face of foods or diets with different protein contents. Expand
The addition of an amylopectin/chromium complex to branched-chain amino acids enhances muscle protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle
TLDR
Evidence is provided that the addition of ACr to BCAAs significantly enhances exercise-induced MPS, and the phosphorylation of mTOR signaling proteins, compared to B CAAs and exercise alone. Expand
Branched chain amino acids, aging and age-related health
TLDR
Understanding the interaction between BCAAs and other components of the diet may provide new opportunities for influencing age-related outcomes through manipulation of dietary B CAAs together with titration of macronutrient ratios and other amino acids. Expand
The muscle anabolic effect of protein ingestion during a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp in middle‐aged women is not caused by leucine alone
TLDR
The effects of ingesting protein or an amount of leucine equal to that in the protein during a hyperinsulinaemic‐euglycaemic clamp on muscle anabolic signalling and protein turnover in 28 women were compared. Expand
Effects of dietary supplementation in sport and exercise: a review of evidence on milk proteins and amino acids
TLDR
The preponderance of evidence suggests that protein supplementation, especially milk proteins, potentiate muscle protein synthesis, lean mass and exercise recovery, and amino acids supplementation are not warranted. Expand
Branched-Chain Amino Acids as Critical Switches in Health and Disease.
TLDR
This brief review highlights how BCAAs play a key role as gatekeepers feeding into upstream and downstream molecular pathways and in this way are major metabolic regulators involved in the pathophysiology of disease. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 27 REFERENCES
Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis.
TLDR
The results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men. Expand
Observations of branched-chain amino acid administration in humans.
  • D. Matthews
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of nutrition
  • 2005
TLDR
An anabolic effect, produced through a reduction of protein breakdown in vivo in humans by leucine is contrary to in vitro studies of rat muscle where stimulation of protein synthesis, has been demonstrated byLeucine. Expand
Amino acid infusion increases the sensitivity of muscle protein synthesis in vivo to insulin. Effect of branched-chain amino acids.
TLDR
It is concluded that amino acids, particularly the branched-chain ones, increase the sensitivity of muscle protein synthesis to insulin. Expand
Effects of leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism
TLDR
It is reported here that HMB stimulates muscle protein synthesis to a similar extent to leucine, and HMB was also found to decrease muscle protein breakdown. Expand
Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise.
TLDR
The results suggest that B CAAs activate mTOR and p70 S6 kinase in human muscle in the recovery period after exercise and that GSK-3 is not involved in the anabolic action of BCAAs on human muscle. Expand
Protein synthesis and breakdown in skin and muscle: a leg model of amino acid kinetics.
TLDR
A model to simultaneously measure the rates of protein synthesis and degradation in the most important peripheral tissues, i.e., skin and muscle, in the interorgan amino acid exchange is developed. Expand
In vivo effects of branched chain amino acids on muscle protein synthesis in fasted rats.
  • M. Buse
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
  • 1981
TLDR
The addition of branched chain amino acids to glucose markedly increased tyrosine incorporation into proteins in the diaphragm, and to a lesser extent in soleus and psoas, and no effect was detectable in heart and gastrocnemius. Expand
Modulations of muscle protein metabolism by branched-chain amino acids in normal and muscle-atrophying rats.
TLDR
BCAAs primarily stimulate muscle protein synthesis in normal rats independently of insulin, although essential amino acids (EAAs) suppressed muscle protein breakdown in hindlimb-immobilized rats, and the effects of BCAAs on muscle protein metabolism differ between atrophy models. Expand
Leucine as a pharmaconutrient in health and disease
  • L. V. van Loon
  • Medicine
  • Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care
  • 2012
TLDR
The recent in-vivo human studies show that leucine ingestion can augment the blunted muscle protein synthetic response to protein or amino acid ingestion in elderly men, and the recent long-term nutritional intervention studies do not confirm the clinical efficacy ofLeucine as a pharmaconutrient. Expand
Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults.
TLDR
Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid-induced stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in the elderly. Expand
...
1
2
3
...