Brainstem cavernous malformations: anatomical, clinical, and surgical considerations.


Symptomatic brainstem cavernous malformations carry a high risk of permanent neurological deficit related to recurrent hemorrhage, which justifies aggressive management. Detailed knowledge of the microscopic and surface anatomy is important for understanding the clinical presentation, predicting possible surgical complications, and formulating an adequate… (More)
DOI: 10.3171/2010.6.FOCUS10133


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