Recent Advances in Brain Computer Interface Systems
Brain stem auditory (BAERs), visual (VEPs) and somatosensory evoked responses (SEPs) were recorded in 12 patients with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher leukodystrophy (PMD), three with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) and three with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). All the 3 evoked responses were abnormal in all patients except normal VEPs and SEPs in a patient with early ALD. In most patients wave I with and without wave II were the only components of the BAERs that remained, subsequent components (waves III-VII) were absent. VEPs were severely altered; either no identifiable response to flash or pattern reversal stimuli could be recorded or the major components were significantly delayed in latency. Short latency SEPs following median nerve stimulation usually showed a normally recorded Erb's potential (N10), but an absence or marked attenuation of cervical (N14) and early scalp components (N19 and P22) or the occurrence of the scalp components with a significant delay. Multimodality evoked responses provide more information regarding the functional integrity of several afferent systems in patients with white matter disorders.