Brain plasticity: ‘visual’ acuity of blind persons via the tongue

@article{Sampaio2001BrainP,
  title={Brain plasticity: ‘visual’ acuity of blind persons via the tongue},
  author={Eliana Sampaio and St{\'e}phane Maris and Paul Bach-y-Rita},
  journal={Brain Research},
  year={2001},
  volume={908},
  pages={204-207}
}
The 'visual' acuity of blind persons perceiving information through a newly developed human-machine interface, with an array of electrical stimulators on the tongue, has been quantified using a standard Ophthalmological test (Snellen Tumbling E). Acuity without training averaged 20/860. This doubled with 9 h of training. The interface may lead to practical devices for persons with sensory loss such as blindness, and offers a means of exploring late brain plasticity. 
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