Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study

  title={Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study},
  author={Jay N. Giedd and Jonathan D. Blumenthal and Neal O. Jeffries and Francisco Xavier Castellanos and H Liu and A. Zijdenbos and Tom{\'a}{\vs} Paus and Alan C. Evans and Judith L. Rapoport},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
Pediatric neuroimaging studies, up to now exclusively cross sectional, identify linear decreases in cortical gray matter and increases in white matter across ages 4 to 20. In this large-scale longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study, we confirmed linear increases in white matter, but demonstrated nonlinear changes in cortical gray matter, with a preadolescent increase followed by a postadolescent decrease. These changes in cortical gray matter were regionally specific, with developmental… 
vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions.
We spatially and temporally mapped brain maturation between adolescence and young adulthood using a whole-brain, voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis of high-resolution structural mag-netic resonance
Brain development in children and adolescents: Insights from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging
Brain development in Chinese children and adolescents: a structural MRI study
This is the first systematic study of Chinese children's brain development. Using optimized voxel-based morphometry, we investigated age-related changes in gray and white matter in Chinese children
Brain Development in Childhood
It is shown that several lifestyle choices, such as sleeping habits and breakfast staple, affect gray matter volume in healthy children and fractional anisotropy, most regions show an exponential trajectory with aging.
White matter development during childhood and adolescence: a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study.
It is demonstrated that during childhood and adolescence, white matter anisotropy changes in brain regions that are important for attention, motor skills, cognitive ability, and memory are changed.
Age-related changes in prefrontal white matter volume across adolescence
Surprising results suggested that prefrontal white matter volume decreased during late adolescence, particularly among the female sex, which suggests that perhaps some developmental processes in late adolescence are not yet fully explained.
Mapping brain maturation
Brain maturation in adolescence: Concurrent changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology
It is suggested that the reduction in gray matter primarily reflects a reduction of neuropil, and that the corresponding elimination of active synapses is responsible for the observed reduction in EEG power.
In vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions
The pattern of brain maturation during these years was distinct from earlier development, and was localized to large regions of dorsal, medial and orbital frontal cortex and lenticular nuclei, with relatively little change in any other location.


Maturation of human cerebrum observed in vivo during adolescence.
Results suggest that increases in cerebrospinal fluid within the sulci of these cortical regions accompany grey matter decreases, and smaller reductions in volume are observed in subcortical grey matter nuclei.
Brain development, gender and IQ in children. A volumetric imaging study.
Normal brain development during childhood is a complex and dynamic process for which detailed scientific information is lacking. MRI techniques, combined with methods for advanced image analysis,
Development of the human corpus callosum during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study
A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study of changes in brain morphology from infancy to late adulthood.
These patterns of growth and change seen in vivo with MRI are largely consistent with neuropathological studies, as well as animal models of development, and may reflect neuronal progressive and regressive processes, including cell growth, myelination, cell death, and atrophy.
Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex
Findings in the human resemble those in rhesus monkeys, including overproduction of synaptic contacts in infancy, persistence of high levels of synaptic density to late childhood or adolescence, the absolute values of maximum and adult synaptic density, and layer specific differences.
Positron emission tomography study of human brain functional development
The determination of changing metabolic patterns accompanying normal brain development is a necessary prelude to the study of abnormal brain development with positron emission tomography.
The human brain age 7-11 years: a volumetric analysis based on magnetic resonance images.
There is emerging evidence that sexually dimorphic abnormal regulation of these terminal patterns of brain development are associated with gravely disabling human disorders of obscure etiology.
Synaptogenesis in visual cortex of normal and preterm monkeys: evidence for intrinsic regulation of synaptic overproduction.
If visual experience in infancy influences the maturation of the visual cortex, it must do so predominantly by strengthening, modifying, and/or eliminating synapses that have already been formed, rather than by regulating the rate of synapse production.
Regional Development of the Brain in Early Life: A Symposium
A brief review of a published symposium which encompasses a multidisciplinary approach on such a broad topic as the development of the brain is not easy. First, some background information. The