Brain damage in former association football players

  title={Brain damage in former association football players},
  author={Ove Sortland and Alf T. Tysvaer},
SummaryThirty-three former football players from the National Football Team of Norway were examined by cerebral computer tomography (CT). The CT studies, evaluated for brain atrophy, visually and by linear measurements compared two different normal materials. One third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy. It is concluded that the atrophy probably was caused by repeated small head injuries during the football play, mainly in connection with heading the ball. 
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It is concluded that presently, although there is exploratory evidence of subclinical neuropsychological impairment as a consequence of football-related concussions, there is no reliable and certainly no definitive evidence that such impairment occurs as a result of general football play or normal football heading.
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Current knowledge on the mechanisms, pathophysiology and sequelae of concussion in athletes is reviewed, leading to a more rational approach in determining policy aimed at returning athletes to their sport after a concussion.


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