Brain arteriovenous malformation biology relevant to hemorrhage and implication for therapeutic development.

@article{Kim2009BrainAM,
  title={Brain arteriovenous malformation biology relevant to hemorrhage and implication for therapeutic development.},
  author={H Kim and Ludmila Pawlikowska and Yongmei Chen and H. T. Su and Guo-Yuan Yang and William Lee Young},
  journal={Stroke},
  year={2009},
  volume={40 3 Suppl},
  pages={
          S95-7
        }
}
Brain arteriovenous malformations cause intracranial hemorrhage. Molecular characterization of lesional tissue implicates angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor, ANG-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9) and inflammatory (cytokines and chemokines) pathways, but the pathogenesis remain obscure and medical therapy is lacking. Macrophage and neutrophil invasion has also been observed in the absence of prior intracranial hemorrhage. Common polymorphisms in interleukin-1beta and activin receptor… CONTINUE READING

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