Brain and cancer: The protective role of erythropoietin

  title={Brain and cancer: The protective role of erythropoietin},
  author={Michele Buemi and Chiara Caccamo and Lorena Nostro and Emanuela Cavallaro and Fulvio Floccari and Giovanni Grasso},
  journal={Medicinal Research Reviews},
Erythropoietin (Epo) is a pleiotropic agent, that is to say, it can act on several cell types in different ways. An independent system Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR) was detected in brain, leading to the hypothesis that this hormone could be involved in cerebral functions. Epo/EpoR expression changes during ontogenesis, thus indicating the importance of this system in neurodevelopment. Moreover, the hypoxia‐induced production of Epo in the adult brain suggests that it could exert a neurotrophic and… 

The Neuroprotective Effect of Erythropoietin in Rat Hippocampus in an Endotoxic Shock Model.

The neuronal cell loss caused by endotoxic shock and interleukin-1β levels were reduced by the administration of the hematopoietic cytokine erythropoietin in this experimental model.

Induction of Signalling in Non-Erythroid Cells by Pharmacological Levels of Erythropoietin

It is demonstrated that EPO, at pharmacological concentrations, can activate three major signalling cascades, viz. the Jak2/STAT5, Ras/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines.

Emerging technologies in the delivery of erythropoietin for therapeutics

The present review focuses on updating the information previously provided by similar reviews and recent experimental approaches presented to describe the advances in Epo drug delivery achieved in the last few years and future perspectives.

Targeted Delivery of Erythropoietin Hybridized with Magnetic Nanocarriers for the Treatment of Central Nervous System Injury: A Literature Review

  • C. Hwang
  • Biology
    International journal of nanomedicine
  • 2020
Preclinical trials are required to increase the therapeutic bioavailability of erythropoietin nanocarriers and decrease the adverse effects (hematological complications, neurotoxicity, and cytotoxicity), especially of the Nanocarrier.

The insulin-like growth factor system and its pleiotropic functions in brain.

In vitro studies have demonstrated that the IGF system promotes differentiation and proliferation and sustains survival, preventing apoptosis of neuronal and brain derived cells and studies of transgenic mice overexpressing components of the IGFsystem or mice with disruptions of the same genes have clearly shown thatThe IGF system plays a key role in vivo.

A single injection of liposomal asialo-erythropoietin improves motor function deficit caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

Erythropoietin Nanobots: Their Feasibility for the Controlled Release of Erythropoietin and Their Neuroprotective Bioequivalence in Central Nervous System Injury

ENBs controlled EPO release in vitro after preconditioning sonication, leading to neuroprotection similar to that of EPO at 24 h.

The therapeutic potential of insulin-like growth factor-1 in central nervous system disorders



The Pleiotropic Effects of Erythropoietin in the Central Nervous System

The neurotrophic and neuroprotective function of Epo in different conditions of neuronal damage, such as hypoxia, cerebral ischemia, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the consequent possibility that rHuEpo therapy could soon be used in clinical practice to limit neuronal damage induced by these diseases.

A Potential Role for Erythropoietin in Focal Permanent Cerebral Ischemia in Mice

  • M. BernaudinH. H. Marti E. Petit
  • Biology
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 1999
The hypothesis that there is a continuous formation of Epo, with its corresponding receptor, during the active evolution of a focal cerebral infarct is supported and the Epo/Epo-R system might be implicated in the processes of neuroprotection and restructuring (such as angiogenesis and gliosis) after ischemia.

EPO's Alter Ego: Erythropoietin Has Multiple Actions

The recent discovery of EPO‐Rs in breast tumor vasculature, while raising important questions about the possible effects of pharmacological doses of rHuEPO on tumor cells, also suggests that the receptors could provide a useful target for drugs attached to EPO.

Identification of a neurotrophic sequence in erythropoietin.

Findings indicate that neural cells and not hematological cells respond to a peptide sequence within erythropoietin and suggests that Epo may have separate domains for neurotrophic and hematotrophic function.

Erythropoietin regulates tumour growth of human malignancies.

The findings suggest that Epo is indispensable for the growth and viability of malignant tumour and also that the deprivation of Epo signalling may be a promising therapy for human malignancy.

Effects of Erythropoietin on Neuronal Activity

The results suggest that EPO stimulates neuronal function and viability via activation of Ca2+ channels.

Erythropoietin: Multiple Physiological Functions and Regulation of Biosynthesis

Novel functions ofEpo at these local sites and tissue-specific regulation of Epo production including a newly found potent regulator (estrogen) have been proposed, which rationalizes the specific functions of EpO produced by individual tissues.

Detection of erythropoietin in human liquor: intrinsic erythropoietin production in the brain.

It is shown that immunoreactive EPO is present in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of 5 patients with traumatic brain injuries, suggesting that EPO acts in a paracrine fashion in the central nervous system and might function as a protective factor against hypoxia-induced damage of neurons.

Erythropoietin prevents neuronal apoptosis after cerebral ischemia and metabolic stress

  • A. SirénM. Fratelli P. Ghezzi
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
Data suggest that inhibition of neuronal apoptosis underlies short latency protective effects of EPO after cerebral ischemia and other brain injuries, and the neurotrophic actions suggest there may be longer-latency effects as well.

Production and processing of erythropoietin receptor transcripts in brain.