Brain anatomy and development in autism: review of structural MRI studies

  title={Brain anatomy and development in autism: review of structural MRI studies},
  author={Paolo Brambilla and Antonio Y. Hardan and Stefania Ucelli di Nemi and Jorge Perez and Jair C. Soares and Francesco Barale},
  journal={Brain Research Bulletin},

The functional neuroanatomy of autism.

Brain imaging studies investigating the functional brain anatomy of autism are reviewed and suggest an involvement of abnormal functional mechanisms in face recognition, mentalization and executive functions in adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome.

Mapping the brain in autism. A voxel-based MRI study of volumetric differences and intercorrelations in autism.

The data suggest abnormalities in the anatomy and connectivity of limbic-striatal 'social' brain systems which may contribute to the brain metabolic differences and behavioural phenotype in autism.

The use of magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain size of young children with autism

Brain size was related to the emergence and presence of autism in children who were below school age and the significance of the prognostic value of MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic technique that can be employed to detect ASD in young children was verified.

Brain Anatomy, Electrophysiology and Visual Function/Perception in Children within the Autism Spectrum Disorder

Individuals with ASD have numerous neuro-anatomical, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, cognitive and other anomalies that can affect the oculomotor system, vision information processing/visual perception, and the development of refractive error that may require intervention.

The autism puzzle: Diffuse but not pervasive neuroanatomical abnormalities in children with ASD

Global Cerebral and Regional Multimodal Neuroimaging Markers of the Neurobiology of Autism

The normalized hippocampus volume increased with age in both autistic and typically developing individuals with limbic structures larger in autistic patients, and Hippocampus volume was inversely correlated with nonverbal intellect across control individuals.

A neuroimaging study in childhood autism

A number of abnom1alities observed in the present study are indicative of relations between structural and physiological dysfunctions and childhood autism and intervention of autism needs to address co morbidities for better outcome.



Parietal lobe abnormalities detected with MR in patients with infantile autism.

The results indicate that the parietal lobes are reduced in volume in a portion of the autistic population, possible origins for this localized cerebral abnormality include early-onset altered development and late-onsets progressive atrophy.

Brain structural abnormalities in young children with autism spectrum disorder

Structural findings suggest abnormal brain developmental processes early in the clinical course of autism, and research currently is underway to better elucidate mechanisms underlying mechanisms underlying these structural abnormalities and their longitudinal progression.

The brain in infantile autism

Cerebellar abnormalities have been found in 15 autopsy and quantitative MRI reports from nine laboratories involving a total of 226 autistic eases and discovery of the etiologies underlying cerebellar maldevelopment may be the key to uncovering some of the causes of infantile autism.

Effects of age on brain volume and head circumference in autism

Brain volume in adolescents and adults with autism is normal, and appears to be due to a slight decrease in brain volume for these individuals at the same time that normal children are experiencing a slight increase.

Development of the hippocampal formation from 2 to 42 years: MRI evidence of smaller area dentata in autism.

The cross-sectional area of the AD was significantly smaller than normal in autism, the largest deviation from normal size being found in autistic children aged 29 months to 4 years.

Cerebral Lobes in Autism: Early Hyperplasia and Abnormal Age Effects

It is found that frontal, temporal, and parietal white Matter volumes, as well as frontal and temporal gray matter volumes, changed at significantly slower rates in autism patients than in controls across the 2- to 11-year-age range.

Review of neuroimaging studies of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders from the past 10 years.

Results from neuroimaging studies of childhood-onset psychiatric disorders suggest consistency in the structures found to be abnormal, but inconsistencies in the nature of these abnormalities.

Cerebral Blood Flow Abnormalities in Adults with Infantile Autism

Total brain perfusion was significantly decreased in autism subjects and the autism group also had regionally decreased flow in the right lateral temporal and right, left, and midfrontal lobes compared with controls.

Regional brain enlargement in autism: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

It is suggested that brain size is increased in autism and that differences are not generalized but appear to be the result of a pattern of enlargement with increases in the size of specific cortical lobes.