Brain activation during vaginocervical self-stimulation and orgasm in women with complete spinal cord injury: fMRI evidence of mediation by the Vagus nerves

@article{Komisaruk2004BrainAD,
  title={Brain activation during vaginocervical self-stimulation and orgasm in women with complete spinal cord injury: fMRI evidence of mediation by the Vagus nerves},
  author={Barry R Komisaruk and Beverly Whipple and Audrita T Crawford and Sherry Grimes and Wen-Ching Liu and Andrew J Kalnin and Kristine M. Mosier},
  journal={Brain Research},
  year={2004},
  volume={1024},
  pages={77-88}
}

Functional MRI of the Brain during Orgasm in Women

It is concluded that the Vagus nerves provide a spinal cord-bypass pathway for vaginal-cervical sensibility and that activation of this pathway can produce analgesia and orgasm.

Cortical processing of residual ano‐rectal sensation in patients with spinal cord injury: an fMRI study

  • B. WietekC. baron P. Enck
  • Medicine, Biology
    Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
  • 2008
The notion that the diagnosis of complete spinal cord transsection by ASIA criteria alone may be insufficient for assessment of ‘completeness’ of cord lesions, and that visceral sensitivity testing may be required in addition, is supported.

Women's clitoris, vagina, and cervix mapped on the sensory cortex: fMRI evidence.

The genital sensory cortex, identified in the classical Penfield homunculus based on electrical stimulation of the brain only in men, was confirmed for the first time in the literature by the present study in women applying clitoral, vaginal, and cervical self-stimulation and observing their regional brain responses using fMRI.

Investigation of transcutaneous neuromodulation techniques and development of a wearable device for control of the bladder following spinal cord injury

Neuromodulation is a potential treatment that may accomplish this using transcutaneous electrical stimulation to protect the upper urinary tract and eliminate incontinence and 77% were found to have preserved sensation, including 45% of those with complete injuries.

Regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with clitorally induced orgasm in healthy women

It is proposed that decreased blood flow in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex signifies behavioural disinhibition during orgasm in women, and that deactivation of the temporal lobe is directly related to high sexual arousal.

Perceived physiological and orgasmic sensations at ejaculation in spinal cord injured men.

The climactic experience of ejaculation seems related to AD, few sensations being reported when AD is not reached, pleasurable climactic sensations being report when mild to moderate AD is reached, and unpleasant or painful sensations reported with severe AD.

Brain Activity Unique to Orgasm in Women: An fMRI Analysis.

...

References

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Preliminary findings suggest that the vagus nerves can convey genital sensory input directly to the brain in women, completely bypassing SCI at any level.

Brain-mediated responses to vaginocervical stimulation in spinal cord-transected rats: role of the vagus nerves

Sexual Response In Women With Spinal Cord Injury: Neurologic Pathways And Recommendations For The Use Of Electrical Stimulation

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Results from studies of the arousal stages of response indicate that psychogenic vaginal lubrication is maintained with pinprick sensation in T11 -T12 dermatomes, and that reflex lubrication occurs in women with upper motor neuron injuries affecting the sacral segments.

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'Complete' spinal cord injury does not block perceptual responses to genital self-stimulation in women.

Genitospinal visceral afferent pathways function in the women in the group with upper SCI, although unrecognized by the American Spinal Injury Association criteria, and/or there exists a functional genital afferent pathway that bypasses the spinal cord and projects directly to the brain, which is proposed to be via the vagus nerves.

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Left vagus nerve stimulation suppresses experimentally induced pain

Vagus nerve stimulation is effective in reducing pain in humans, indicating a promising, potential future role of vagus nerve stimulation in pain treatment and suggesting the antinociceptive effect might rely on central inhibition rather than alterations of peripheral nocICEptive mechanisms.

Sexual response to self‐stimulation in women with complete spinal cord injury

Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and self‐report of level of sexual arousal were determined during self‐stimulation of the vagina, the cervix, and a “hypersensitive” area.

Vagal afferents from the uterus and cervix provide direct connections to the brainstem

The vagus nerves serve as connections between the uterus and CNS, the nodose ganglia contain uterine-related vagal afferent neuron cell bodies, and neurons in vagal locales contain estrogen receptors.
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