Brain Serotonin Content: Increase Following Ingestion of Carbohydrate Diet

@article{Fernstrom1971BrainSC,
  title={Brain Serotonin Content: Increase Following Ingestion of Carbohydrate Diet},
  author={John D. Fernstrom and Richard J. Wurtman},
  journal={Science},
  year={1971},
  volume={174},
  pages={1023 - 1025}
}
In the rat, the injection of insulin or the consumption of carbohydrate causes sequential increases in the concentrations of tryptophan in the plasma and the brain and of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin-containing neurons may thus participate in systems whereby the rat brain integrates information about the metabolic state in its relation to control of homeostatis and behavior. 
Effects of long-term corn consumption on brain serotonin and the response to electric shock
Rats fed tryptophan-poor corn diets have reduced levels of brain serotonin and show increased responsiveness to electric shock. This diet-induced hyperalgesia can be reversed by feeding the animals
Differential effects of insulin on brain monoamine metabolism in rats.
The effect of a subconvulsive dose of insulin, which caused a 70% reduction of plasma glucose levels, on catecholamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine turnover in different brain regions of rats was
Brain serotonin content: physiological regulation by plasma neutral amino acids.
TLDR
The main determinant of brain tryPTophan and serotonin concentrations does not appear to be plasma tryptophan alone, but the ratio of this amino acid to other plasma neutral amino acids that compete with it for uptake into the brain.
Brain Serotonin Content: Physiological Regulation by Plasma Neutral Amino Acids
TLDR
The main determinant of brain tryPTophan and serotonin concentrations does not appear to be plasma tryptophan alone, but the ratio of this amino acid to other plasma neutral amino acids that compete with it for uptake into the brain.
Failure of decreased serotonin uptake or monoamine oxidase inhibition to block the acceleration in brain 5-hydroxyindole synthesis that follows food consumption
TLDR
The acceleration in brain serotonin synthesis produced by injecting rats with tryptophan or allowing them to consume a carbohydrate diet was not blocked by the prior elevation of brain serotonin levels or by a treatment that decreases impulse flow along serotoninergic neurons.
Possible role of insulin in the transport of tyrosine and tryptophan from blood to brain.
TLDR
The results suggest that insulin enhances the transport of tyrosine and tryptophan from blood to brain.
Dietary Carbohydrate Increases Brain Tryptophan and Decreases Free Plasma Tryptophan
TLDR
Car carbohydrate ingestion, which raises plasma tryptophan while depressing the concentrations of its competitors, increases the amount of tryPTophan in the brain and accelerates synthesis of serotonin in young rats; on the other hand, protein consumption causes proportionately greater increases in the other neutral amino acids than in plasma trypsophan, and thus fails to elevate brain tryptophon or serotonin.
Effects of the diet on brain function.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 47 REFERENCES
Brain Serotonin Content: Physiological Dependence on Plasma Tryptophan Levels
TLDR
Brain serotonin cocentrations at 1 p.m. were significantly elevated 1 hour after rats received a dose of L-tryptophan and plasma and brain tryptophan levels were elevated 10 to 60 minutes after the injection, but they never exceeded the concentrationis that occur nocturnally in untreated aninmals as result of their normal 24-hour rhythms.
Effect of Glucose Infusion on the Individual Plasma Free Amino Acids in Man.∗
  • O. Crofford, P. Felts, W. Lacy
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1964
TLDR
Glucose, with and without exogenous insulin, was infused into normal males under conditions which produced a submaximal fall in total plasma FAA concentrations, revealing a significant decrease in the following essential amino acids; leucine, valine, threonine, isoleucines, phenyl-alanine and tyrosine.
Effect of a Tryptophan Deficient Diet on Brain Serotonin and Plasma Tryptophan Level.∗
TLDR
The levels of plasma tryptophan and brain serotonin were relatively constant from 4 to 28 days, at which time both showed further decreases, which was found to reflect changes in brain serotonin level.
Effect of dietary phenylalanine and tryptophan upon rat brain amine levels.
TLDR
In the paper entitled "Effect of Dietary Phenylalanine and Tryptophan upon Rat Brain Amine Levels" by Harry Green, Samuel M. Greenberg, Robert W. Erickson, John L. Sawyer and Theodore Ellison, a typographical error was perpetuated in footnote 1 on page 174.
5‐HYDROXYINDOLE METABOLISM IN RAT BRAIN. A STUDY OF INTERMEDIATE METABOLISM USING THE TECHNIQUE OF TRYPTOPHAN LOADING—II. APPLICATIONS and DRUG STUDIES
TLDR
This paper is concerned with applications of the technique of tryptophan loading with the measurement of intermediate metabolites of 5hydroxytryptamine metabolism in the rat brain, and of the effects of administration of drugs known to block enzymes concerned in the metabolism of tryPTophan.
Mechanism of the daily rhythm in hepatic tyrosine transaminase activity: role of dietary tryptophan.
TLDR
In some experiments data obtained using this spectrophotometric method were compared with those from an isotopic assay; there were no significant differences between these results.
5‐HYDROXYINDOLE METABOLISM IN RAT BRAIN. A STUDY OF INTERMEDIATE METABOLISM USING THE TECHNIQUE OF TRYPTOPHAN LOADING–I METHODS
TLDR
An attempt to combine ‘loading’ with the measurement of precursors, amines and metabolites in the 5-hydroxyindole pathway was described, to obtain a picture of the pathway in vivo under load.
THE EFFECTS OF PRECURSOR LOADING IN THE CEREBRAL METABOLISM OF 5‐HYDROXYINDOLES
TLDR
It is concluded that there are regional differences within brain in storage, turnover or metabolic fate of 5‐HT, and that turnover through the system is normally controlled by intracerebral tryptophan 5‐hydroxylase in both rats and dogs although there are differences between the species in the cerebral metabolism of5‐HT.
Daily Changes in 5-Hydroxytryptamine Concentration in Mouse Brain.∗ †
TLDR
A small but significant decrease in 5-HTA concentration of brain pools was noted prior to usual time of arousal in ZBC mice studied under conditions standardized for evaluation of 24-hour periodicity.
Effect of psychotropic drugs on tryptophan concentration in the rat brain.
The administration of d -amphetamine. reserpine, dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate and lithium or the exposure to hot environmental temperature, conditions known to increase brain serotonin
...
...