# Braiding statistics of loop excitations in three dimensions.

@article{Wang2014BraidingSO, title={Braiding statistics of loop excitations in three dimensions.}, author={Chenjie Wang and Michael Levin}, journal={Physical review letters}, year={2014}, volume={113 8}, pages={ 080403 } }

While it is well known that three dimensional quantum many-body systems can support nontrivial braiding statistics between particlelike and looplike excitations, or between two looplike excitations, we argue that a more fundamental quantity is the statistical phase associated with braiding one loop α around another loop β, while both are linked to a third loop γ. We study this three-loop braiding in the context of (Z(N))(K) gauge theories which are obtained by gauging a gapped, short-range…

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