Braiding statistics of loop excitations in three dimensions.

  title={Braiding statistics of loop excitations in three dimensions.},
  author={Chenjie Wang and Michael Levin},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={113 8},
While it is well known that three dimensional quantum many-body systems can support nontrivial braiding statistics between particlelike and looplike excitations, or between two looplike excitations, we argue that a more fundamental quantity is the statistical phase associated with braiding one loop α around another loop β, while both are linked to a third loop γ. We study this three-loop braiding in the context of (Z(N))(K) gauge theories which are obtained by gauging a gapped, short-range… 

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