• Corpus ID: 41650308

Brachycephalic airway syndrome: pathophysiology and diagnosis.

@article{Lodato2012BrachycephalicAS,
  title={Brachycephalic airway syndrome: pathophysiology and diagnosis.},
  author={Dena L Lodato and Cheryl S. Hedlund},
  journal={Compendium},
  year={2012},
  volume={34 7},
  pages={
          E3
        }
}
Brachycephalic airway syndrome (BAS) is a group of abnormalities that result in upper airway obstruction. Primary malformations include stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, and hypoplastic trachea, which cause an increase in negative pressure within the upper airways that can eventually lead to secondary abnormalities such as everted laryngeal saccules, everted tonsils, and laryngeal and tracheal collapse. Abnormal nasopharyngeal turbinates are also encountered, but have not been classified… 

Figures from this paper

Brachycephalic airway syndrome.
  • S. Meola
  • Medicine
    Topics in companion animal medicine
  • 2013
TLDR
Early recognition of primary anatomic abnormalities that include stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, and hypoplastic trachea would allow the clinician to make early recommendations for medical and surgical management, which can improve the quality of life in affected animals.
Updates in Upper Respiratory Surgery.
  • H. Phillips
  • Medicine
    The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
  • 2022
Complications following laryngeal sacculectomy in brachycephalic dogs
TLDR
The results suggest that sacculectomy might increase morbidity following brachycephalic airway surgery, but repeat studies are required to confirm this result.
Evaluation of pre-and postoperative clinical signs , endoscopic findings and histomorphology of caudal soft palates in French bulldogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome that underwent elongated soft palate surgery
TLDR
A thick caudal soft palate with mucosal hyperplasia with its edematous stroma as an important etiologic condition in French bulldogs with BOAS is proposed and highly recommend surgical intervention in dog breeds displaying BOAS.
Síndrome braquicefálica em cães: Revisão
. Brachycephalic dogs have become increasingly desirable among pet owners. However, one of the main diseases that affect these animals is brachycephalic syndrome. This condition causes an increase in
Resection and Primary Closure of Edematous Glossoepiglottic Mucosa in a Dog Causing Laryngeal Obstruction.
TLDR
Surgical resection and closure of the GE mucosa resolved this patient's dyspnea and is recommended in airway obstruction and it remains to be determined if primary closure and subsequent tensioning or scar tissue of theGE mucosa results in further complications related to restricted epiglottic movement.
Evaluation of aerodigestive disease and diagnosis of sliding hiatal hernia in brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs
TLDR
Dogs with sHH may present with exclusively respiratory signs and Respiratory signs may be more severe in brachycephalic compared to nonbrachycephalics dogs, and videofluoroscopic swallow study was superior to thoracic radiographs for detection of sHH in dogs.
Quantification of nasal airflow resistance in English bulldogs using computed tomography and computational fluid dynamics
TLDR
It is concluded that computational fluid dynamics models derived from nasal multidetector computed tomography can quantify airway resistance in brachycephalic dogs and may have utility for objectively studying effects of surgical interventions in canine brachyphalic airway syndrome.
Consequences and Management of Canine Brachycephaly in Veterinary Practice: Perspectives from Australian Veterinarians and Veterinary Specialists
TLDR
It is argued that there is now widespread evidence documenting a link between extreme brachycephalic phenotypes and chronic disease, which compromises canine welfare and the breeding of dogs with BOAS cannot be justified, and further, cannot be recommended, and indeed, should be discouraged by veterinarians.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 27 REFERENCES
Brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome.
TLDR
This is a complex condition, recognized primarily in brachycephalic breeds, that results in varying degrees of upper airway obstruction and results in distortion and collapse of the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx.
Brachycephalic airway syndrome.
  • J. Hendricks
  • Medicine
    The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
  • 1992
Laryngeal collapse in seven brachycephalic puppies.
TLDR
The development of severe secondary laryngeal changes in dogs aged six months or less supports the suggestion that immature brachycephalic dogs should undergo assessment and, if indicated, surgery as soon as any clinical signs of BAS are apparent.
Nasopharyngeal turbinates in brachycephalic dogs and cats.
TLDR
The presence of nasal turbinates in the nasopharynx (nasopharyngeal turbinates) may play a role in upper airway obstruction in the brachycephalic airway syndrome.
Upper airway obstruction. General principles and selected conditions in the dog and cat.
  • D. Aron, D. Crowe
  • Medicine
    The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
  • 1985
Surgical correction of brachycephalic syndrome in dogs: 62 cases (1991-2004).
TLDR
Surgical treatment of brachycephalic syndrome in dogs appeared to be associated with a favorable long-term outcome, regardless of age, breed, specific diagnoses, or number and combinations of diagnoses.
Long-term results of upper respiratory syndrome surgery and gastrointestinal tract medical treatment in 51 brachycephalic dogs.
TLDR
Comparing with other studies, digestive tract medical treatment combined with upper respiratory surgery seems to decrease the complication rate and improve the prognosis of dogs presented for upper respiratory syndrome.
Approach to the patient with respiratory distress.
Alapexy: an alternative technique for repair of stenotic nares in dogs.
  • G. Ellison
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • 2004
TLDR
Although the alapexy procedure was somewhat more difficult to perform than simple wedge resection techniques, it may be a viable option in those animals where other techniques have failed or in animals that have dystrophic or flaccid alar cartilage.
...
...