Clinical manifestations of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD): kidney-related and non-kidney-related phenotypes
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) shows a great phenotypic variability between patients, ranging from perinatal demise to mildly affected adults. Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (PCLD) does not manifest in childhood. A boy was reported with the co-occurrence of ARPKD and PCLD. He presented at the age of 16 days with pyelonephritis and urosepsis. Subsequent investigations showed enlarged kidneys and hyperechogenic renal medulla and liver parenchyma. Genetic analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the PKHD1 gene (p.Arg496X and p.Ser1862Leu). After his mother was diagnosed with PCLD, the finding of a liver cyst on ultrasound prompted analysis of the PRKCSH gene, revealing a missense mutation (p.Arg139His). At the most recent follow-up at 13 years of age, the patient’s course and clinical examination was uneventful with normal renal and liver function without evidence of portal hypertension. The patient with ARPKD and PCLD has so far demonstrated a benign clinical outcome, consistent with the great phenotypic variability of ARPKD and, apart from the liver cyst, asymptomatic manifestation of PCLD in childhood. However, close long-term follow-up is mandatory.