Pathogens that cause infertility of bulls or transmission via semen.
Although BVDV-free offspring have been produced from persistently infected bulls and heifers via advanced reproductive techniques, embryos and semen can potentially transmit the virus. Due to this potential for transmission, appropriate testing is necessary to ensure freedom of semen and embryos from BVDV. In the future, less constraining quality control measures may ensure freedom of embryos and semen from BVDV. These quality control measures require additional research to be validated.