Animal mitochondrial protein synthesis factors elongation factor (EF) Tu and EF-Ts have been purified as an EF-Tu.Ts complex from crude extracts of bovine liver mitochondria. The mitochondrial complex has been purified 10,000-fold to near homogeneity by a combination of chromatographic procedures including high performance liquid chromatography. The mitochondrial EF-Tu.Ts complex is very stable and cannot be dissociated even in the presence of high concentrations of guanine nucleotides. No guanine nucleotide binding to this complex can be observed in the standard nitrocellulose filter binding assay. Mitochondrial EF-Ts activity can be detected by its ability to facilitate guanine nucleotide exchange with Escherichia coli EF-Tu. The EF-Tumt exhibits similar levels of activity on isolated mammalian mitochondrial and E. coli ribosomes, but displays minimal activity on Euglena gracilis chloroplast 70 S ribosomes and has no detectable activity on wheat germ cytoplasmic ribosomes. In contrast to the bacterial EF-Tu and the EF-Tu from the chloroplast of E. gracilis, the ability of the mitochondrial factor to catalyze polymerization is not inhibited by the antibiotic kirromycin.