Botulinum toxin type A and other botulinum toxin serotypes: a comparative review of biochemical and pharmacological actions

@article{Aoki2001BotulinumTT,
  title={Botulinum toxin type A and other botulinum toxin serotypes: a comparative review of biochemical and pharmacological actions},
  author={Kei Roger Aoki and Bill Guyer},
  journal={European Journal of Neurology},
  year={2001},
  volume={8}
}
Botulinum toxin type A is an important therapeutic agent for the treatment of movement and other disorders. As the clinical uses of botulinum toxin type A expand, it is increasingly important to understand the biochemical and pharmacological actions of this toxin, as well as those of other botulinum toxin serotypes (B‐G). Botulinum neurotoxin serotypes exhibit differences in neurotoxin complex protein size, percentage of neurotoxin in the activated or nicked form, intracellular protein target… Expand
Botulinum neurotoxin formulations: overcoming the confusion
TLDR
The basic clinical pharmacology of botulinum toxin A and differences between onabotulinum toxins A, abobotulinu toxin A, and incobOTulinumoxin A are discussed. Expand
Pharmacology of botulinum neurotoxins
TLDR
A review of the basic and clinical pharmacology of botulinum neurotoxins as well as the influence of molecular structure, mechanisms, and formulation on the pharmacology finds evidence for additional mechanisms of action beyond the traditional inhibition of acetylcholine release. Expand
Beyond BOTOX: advantages and limitations of individual botulinum neurotoxins
TLDR
This article will critically assess the value of individual members of the botulinum family for experimental neuroscience and medicine, highlighting advantages and limitations for their future exploitation. Expand
Immunogenicity Associated with Botulinum Toxin Treatment
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been used for the treatment of a variety of neurologic, medical and cosmetic conditions. Two serotypes, type A (BoNT-A) and type B (BoNT-B), are currently in clinical use.Expand
Immunogenicity of botulinum toxins
TLDR
Overall, botulinum neurotoxin type A products exhibit low clinically detectable levels of antibodies when compared with other approved biologic products. Expand
Long‐term treatment outcome with different formulations of botulinum toxin
TLDR
The results appear to suggest that the reduced local and systemic migration seen with Botox may partly explain its lower incidence of adverse events, and findings need to be interpreted with caution, as there are methodological limitations. Expand
The story of Clostridium botulinum: from food poisoning to Botox.
TLDR
The discovery of botulinum toxins through to their present day applications in medicine is outlined. Expand
Pharmaceutical, Biological, and Clinical Properties of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Products
TLDR
Physicians should be aware of how they differ to ensure their safe and effective use of botulinum neurotoxin products, and, given the widespread aesthetic use of these three neurot toxin products, physicians should beaware of how them differ. Expand
Botulinum Toxin: An Update on Pharmacology and Newer Products in Development
TLDR
An overview of the toxo-pharmacology of conventional and novel BoNT preparations, including those awaiting imminent translation from the laboratory to the clinic, are presented. Expand
Botulism: Cause, Effects, Diagnosis, Clinical and Laboratory Identification, and Treatment Modalities
TLDR
The decision to initiate botulinum antitoxin therapy is primarily based on symptoms and physical examination findings that are consistent with botulism, with support of epidemiological history and electrophysiological testing. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 85 REFERENCES
Preclinical update on BOTOX® (botulinum toxin type A)‐purified neurotoxin complex relative to other botulinurn neurotoxin preparations
TLDR
Each botulinum toxin serotype tested exhibited a different muscle weakening efficacy; BOTOX® consistently exhibited the greatest eficacy; BotoX® and Dysport® exhibited markedly different efficacy and safety profiles, and should not be considered interchangeable. Expand
Botulinum toxin therapy, immunologic resistance, and problems with available materials
TLDR
Limiting the dose to < or = 100 LD50 units per injection cycle may limit this complication in the interim and be a method to reduce antigen exposure and mitigate against immunoresistance associated with dystonia therapy. Expand
Comparison of Therapeutic Efficacies of Type A and F Botulinum Toxins for Blepharospasm
TLDR
Type F botulinum toxin can be used for treating patients with dystonia who become refractory to type A toxin injection due to antibody development but its usefulness is limited by the shorter duration of action. Expand
Further studies using higher doses of botulinum toxin type F for torticollis resistant to botulinum toxin type A
TLDR
Better results are possible with higher doses of BTX-F but the duration of benefit is still shorter than withBTX-A, seemingly due to a shorter duration of neuromuscular junction blockade. Expand
Botulinum toxin–a possible new treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis
TLDR
To determine the dosage, pattern and duration of the anhidrotic effect of botulinum toxin and to test the efficacy of axillary injections, seven healthy volunteers were studied. Expand
Human response to botulinum toxin injection: Type B compared with type A
TLDR
Human muscle paralysis resulting fromBTXB injection is not as complete or long-lasting as that resulting from BTXA, and at 57 weeks postinjection 22% of the original muscle paralysis was still present. Expand
Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins: mechanism of action and therapeutic uses.
TLDR
The remarkable specificity of BoNTs is exploited in the treatment of human diseases characterized by a hyperfunction of cholinergic terminals. Expand
Botulinum neurotoxin type G proteolyses the Ala81-Ala82 bond of rat synaptobrevin 2.
TLDR
It is shown that botulinum toxin type G cleaves rat synaptobrevin 2 between Ala81 and Ala82, a peptide bond that differs from those attacked by tetanus toxin and the botulinal toxins types B, D, and F. Expand
Role of a protease in natural activation of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin.
  • Bibhuti R. Das Gupta, H. Sugiyama
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Infection and immunity
  • 1972
TLDR
Results suggest that at least two bonds are cleaved by trypsin during activation of type E progenitor toxin to toxin (form manifesting maximal possible specific toxicity) and natural activation of progenitor toxin of proteolytic strains may also involve cleavage of more than one bond. Expand
Development of resistance to botulinum toxin type A in patients with torticollis
TLDR
It is recommended that physicians wait as long as possible between btx injections, avoid booster injections, and use the smallest possible doses, in order to minimize the risk of developing btx resistance. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...