Botulinum toxin therapy for cervical dystonia: review of the clinical evidence and ongoing studies

@article{Kamm2011BotulinumTT,
  title={Botulinum toxin therapy for cervical dystonia: review of the clinical evidence and ongoing studies},
  author={Christoph Kamm and Reiner Benecke},
  journal={Clinical investigation},
  year={2011},
  volume={1},
  pages={891-900}
}
  • C. KammR. Benecke
  • Published 22 June 2011
  • Medicine, Psychology, Biology
  • Clinical investigation
Cervical dystonia, also referred to as spasmodic torticollis, is the most frequent form of adult-onset focal dystonia seen in neurological practice. It is characterized by involuntary contractions in a specific set of muscles causing abnormal, sustained and frequently painful postures of the head, neck and shoulders. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (BoNT) into selected muscles is currently considered the treatment of first choice. This has been confirmed by numerous short- and long… 

Relevance of sonography for botulinum toxin treatment of cervical dystonia: an expert statement

The aim of this review is to discuss the relevance of sonography in this indication, and provide a statement from clinical experts for its use, to improve treatment outcome in patients with cervical dystonia.

Rating scales for cervical dystonia: a critical evaluation of tools for outcome assessment of botulinum toxin therapy

None of the rating scales used at present has been rigorously tested for responsiveness to detect significant changes in clinical status after therapeutic interventions, so further research is needed to develop a valid and reliable instrument.

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  • Medicine
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