Botulinum Toxin in the treatment of strabismus. A review of its use and effects

@article{Kowal2007BotulinumTI,
  title={Botulinum Toxin in the treatment of strabismus. A review of its use and effects},
  author={Lionel Kowal and Elaine Y. H. Wong and Claudia Yahalom},
  journal={Disability and Rehabilitation},
  year={2007},
  volume={29},
  pages={1823 - 1831}
}
Botulinum Toxin as a medical therapy was introduced by Dr Alan Scott more than 20 years ago. The first clinical applications of Botulinum Toxin type A (BT-A) were for the treatment of strabismus and for periocular spasms. Botulinum Toxin type A is often effective in small to moderate angle convergent strabismus (esotropia) of any cause, and may be an alternative to surgery in these cases. Botulinum Toxin type A may have a role in acute or chronic fourth and sixth nerve palsy, childhood… 

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Botulinum toxin-A injection in esotropic Duane syndrome patients up to 2 years of age.

Chemodenervation of extraocular muscles with botulinum toxin in thyroid eye disease

Using BT injection to extraocular muscles to treat diplopia in TED patients is most effective in preventing surgery in those patients with 20∆ or less of deviation, with success rates higher if pre-treatment deviation was less than 20 prism diopters.

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Botulinum toxin A in the early treatment of sixth nerve palsy in type 2 diabetes

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References

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Effect of botulinum toxin A chemodenervation in sensory strabismus.

This study on the effects of sensory strabismus with botulinum toxin type A injection suggests it has the potential to replace surgery or be used as an adjuvant therapy.

Botulinum toxin management of childhood intermittent exotropia.

Injection of type A botulinum toxin into extraocular muscles for correction of strabismus.

The results in patients with nonparalytic horizontal strabismus treated with adjustable sutures were more predictable and longer lasting than those in the patients who received botulinum toxin, and the beneficial effects were modest.

A five-year analysis of botulinum toxin type A injections: some unusual features.

The results indicate that larger doses of botulinum toxin produce longer spasm-free intervals in the treatment of blepharospasm, and one patient receiving injections for her blephrospasm discovered that its cause was her sedative medication.

Botulinum Toxin Type A for Dysthyroid Upper Eyelid Retraction

Individual response to treatment is variable, but this modality should be considered as a temporizing measure until stability for surgery is reached, and botulinum toxin type A may be used in the inflammatory stage of thyroid eye disease to improve upper eyelid retraction.

Role of botulinum toxin A in surgically overcorrected exotropia.

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  • Medicine
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The long-term use of botulinum toxin for adult strabismus.

Botulinum toxin injection is an appropriate long-term treatment for some strabismus patients who choose not to undergo further surgery, and a trend toward fewer injections with time was observed, and no adverse effects were associated with long- term treatment.

Botulinum alignment for congenital esotropia.

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  • Medicine
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