Botulinum-A toxin in the treatment of craniocervical muscle spasms: short- and long-term, local and systemic effects.

@article{Dutton1996BotulinumATI,
  title={Botulinum-A toxin in the treatment of craniocervical muscle spasms: short- and long-term, local and systemic effects.},
  author={Jonathan J. Dutton},
  journal={Survey of ophthalmology},
  year={1996},
  volume={41 1},
  pages={51-65}
}
Botulinum toxin has become the initial treatment of choice for the management of essential blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and other craniocervical dystonias. Numerous studies have confirmed a 90% to 95% response rate. Although a number of common side effects have been reported, the occurrence and incidence of rare local complications remains poorly understood. More importantly, the acute and chronic distant effects of botulinum toxin have not been clearly elucidated. A better understanding of… CONTINUE READING

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