Bottom-up linkages between primary production, zooplankton, and fish in a shallow, hypereutrophic lake.

  title={Bottom-up linkages between primary production, zooplankton, and fish in a shallow, hypereutrophic lake.},
  author={Shin‐ichiro S. Matsuzaki and Kenta Suzuki and Taku Kadoya and Megumi Nakagawa and Noriko Takamura},
  volume={99 9},
Nutrient supply is a key bottom-up control of phytoplankton primary production in lake ecosystems. Top-down control via grazing pressure by zooplankton also constrains primary production and primary production may simultaneously affect zooplankton. Few studies have addressed these bidirectional interactions. We used convergent cross-mapping (CCM), a numerical test of causal associations, to quantify the presence and direction of the causal relationships among environmental variables (light… 

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