Bots, #StrongerIn, and #Brexit: Computational Propaganda during the UK-EU Referendum

@article{Howard2016BotsA,
  title={Bots, \#StrongerIn, and \#Brexit: Computational Propaganda during the UK-EU Referendum},
  author={Philip N. Howard and Bence Kollanyi},
  journal={ArXiv},
  year={2016},
  volume={abs/1606.06356}
}
Bots are social media accounts that automate interaction with other users, and they are active on the StrongerIn-Brexit conversation happening over Twitter. These automated scripts generate content through these platforms and then interact with people. Political bots are automated accounts that are particularly active on public policy issues, elections, and political crises. In this preliminary study on the use of political bots during the UK referendum on EU membership, we analyze the tweeting… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

The Brexit Botnet and User-Generated Hyperpartisan News
TLDR
A network of Twitterbots comprising 13,493 accounts that tweeted the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, only to disappear from Twitter shortly after the ballot is uncovered, showing that Twitterbots can be effective at rapidly generating small- to medium-sized cascades.
Brexit and bots: characterizing the behaviour of automated accounts on Twitter during the UK election
TLDR
This paper provides a comprehensive description of the structure of the networks of interactions among users and bots during the UK elections of 2019, focusing on the polarised discussion about Brexit on Twitter analysing a data set made of more than 10 million tweets posted for over a month.
The public accountability of social platforms: lessons from a study on bots and trolls in the Brexit campaign
  • M. Bastos, Dan Mercea
  • Business
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2018
TLDR
It is argued for improving researchers' access to data associated with contentious issues and suggest that social media platforms should offer public application programming interfaces to allow researchers access to content generated on their networks.
Not the Bots You Are Looking For: Patterns and Effects of Orchestrated Interventions in the U.S. and German Elections
Zooming in on automated and semiautomated social actors created to influence public opinion on social media, we employ a novel analytic approach to identify patterns of inauthentic behavior across
Disinformation and social bot operations in the run up to the 2017 French presidential election
TLDR
Anomalous account usage patterns suggest the possible existence of a black market for reusable political disinformation bots and a characterization of both the bots and the users who engaged with them, and oppose it to those users who didn’t.
EVIDENCE FROM # BREXIT AND # USELECTION
This paper studies information diffusion in social media and the role of bots in shaping public opinions. Using Twitter data on the 2016 E.U. Referendum (“Brexit”) and the 2016 U.S. Presidential
Social Bots in Election Campaigns: Theoretical, Empirical, and Methodological Implications
Social bots mimic and potentially manipulate humans and their behaviours in social networks. The public sphere might be especially vulnerable to their impacts, which is why we first discuss their
Towards Understanding Political Interactions on Instagram
TLDR
A preliminary study of interactions in a popular OSN, namely Instagram, takes Italy as a case study in the period before the 2019 European Elections, and suggests that profiles of politicians attract markedly different interactions than other categories.
Characterizing the role of bots’ in polarized stance on social media
TLDR
It was found that the presence of bots was still connected to users’ stances, especially in an indirect manner, as users are exposed to the content of the bots they follow, rather than by directly interacting with them by retweeting, mentioning, or replying.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 29 REFERENCES
Political Bots and the Manipulation of Public Opinion in Venezuela
TLDR
The tweeting, following and retweeting patterns for the accounts of prominent Venezuelan politicians and prominent Venezuelan bots are analyzed and it is found that bots generate a very small proportion of all the traffic about political life in Venezuela.
Who is tweeting on Twitter: human, bot, or cyborg?
TLDR
This paper proposes a classification system that uses the combination of features extracted from an unknown user to determine the likelihood of being a human, bot or cyborg on Twitter and demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed classification system.
Digitizing the Social Contract: Producing American Political Culture in the Age of New Media
Campaigns are complex exercises in the creation, transmission, and mutation of significant political symbols. However, there are important differences between political communication through new
How (Not) to Predict Elections
TLDR
It is found that electoral predictions using the published research methods on Twitter data are not better than chance and a set of standards that any theory aiming to predict elections (or other social events) using social media should follow is proposed.
The new war correspondents: the rise of civic media curation in urban warfare
TLDR
The volume and frequency of microblogging activity on Twitter from four cities afflicted by the Mexican Drug War is described, showing how citizens use social media to alert one another and to comment on the violence that plagues their communities.
Is the Sample Good Enough? Comparing Data from Twitter's Streaming API with Twitter's Firehose
TLDR
Data collected using Twitter's sampled API service is compared with data collected using the full, albeit costly, Firehose stream that includes every single published tweet to help researchers and practitioners understand the implications of using the Streaming API.
NEW MEDIA CAMPAIGNS AND THE MANAGED CITIZEN
WEB CAMPAIGNING. Kirsten A. Foot and Steven M. Schneider. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006, 272 pages. , by Kristen A. Foot and Steven M. Schneider NEW MEDIA CAMPAIGNS AND THE MANAGED CITIZEN. Philip
Truthy: enabling the study of online social networks
TLDR
This work describes recent extensions to Truthy, a system that collects Twitter data to analyze discourse in near real-time, and introduces several interactive visualizations and analytical tools with the goal of enabling citizens, journalists, and researchers to understand and study online social networks at multiple scales.
In Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia
The Cold War was the period of protracted conflict and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the late 1940s until the late 1980s. The main U.S. allies were
Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up
TLDR
Drawing on evidence from around the world, Philip N. Howard illustrates how the internet of things can be used to repress and control people, and demonstrates that if the authors actively engage with the governments and businesses building theinternet of things, they have a chance to build a new kind of internet-and a more open society.
...
1
2
3
...