Botany: Floral fluorescence effect

  title={Botany: Floral fluorescence effect},
  author={Fernando Gand{\'i}a-Herrero and Francisco Garc{\'i}a-Carmona and Josefa Escribano},
The way flowers appear to insects is crucial for pollination. Here we describe an internal light-filtering effect in the flowers of Mirabilis jalapa, in which the visible fluorescence emitted by one pigment, a yellow betaxanthin, is absorbed by another, a violet betacyanin, to create a contrasting fluorescent pattern on the flower's petals. This finding opens up new possibilities for pollinator perception as fluorescence has not previously been considered as a potential signal in flowers. 
Biocommunication between Plants and Pollinating Insects through Fluorescence of Pollen and Anthers
It is shown that the autofluorescence emitted from pollen and anthers under UV irradiation may act as another attractant for flower-visiting insects as well as protectants of pollen genes from UV-induced damage. Expand
Synthesis-Iridescence, fluorescence and polarization of flowers: visual signals or epiphenomena?
Pigmentary coloration – via wavelength-selective absorption by pigments of light backscattered by the flower’s interior – of flowers is widespread in many species. An increasing number of studiesExpand
Functional significance of the optical properties of flowers for visual signalling
Common aspects, such as chromatic and achromatic contrast, hue, saturation and brightness, as well as less common types of visual signals, including gloss, fluorescence, polarization and iridescence are discussed in the context of salience of floral colour signals and their evolution. Expand
Floral Iridescence, Produced by Diffractive Optics, Acts As a Cue for Animal Pollinators
It is found that bumblebees learn to disentangle flower iridescence from color and correctly identify iridescent flowers despite their continuously changing appearance in the absence of cues from polarized light or ultraviolet reflectance associated with diffraction gratings. Expand
Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?
It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. Expand
UV induced visual cues in grasses
Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflictExpand
Light Emission in Betalains: From Fluorescent Flowers to Biotechnological Applications.
The photophysics, photochemistry, and photobiology of betalain fluorescence is comprehensively reviewed and all current applications are described. Expand
Soybean, sunflowers and rapeseed produced fluorescent seed and root exudates and an enhanced induction of sclerotia formation, hyphal squeezing and lysis in the mycelium was observed, suggesting that the fluorescent compounds and perhaps other chemical molecules also present in exudate might constitute a transitory defense barrier against early attack by pathogens. Expand
Recent advances on the development and regulation of flower color in ornamental plants
The functions of petal tissue structure, as well as the distribution and type of pigments, especially anthocyanins, in color development are outlined, to provide a broad background for flower color improvements in ornamental plants. Expand
Implications of reflectance and fluorescence of Rhododendron indicum flowers in biosignaling.
  • A. Iriel, M. Lagorio
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology
  • 2010
A quantitative evaluation of the light emerging from intact petals of Rhododendron indicum flowers of different colours was performed and it was concluded that only reflectance signals should be relevant in biosignal communication with pollinators. Expand


Pollinator attraction: Crab-spiders manipulate flower signals
It is shown that the coloration of an Australian species of crab-spider, Thomisus spectabilis, which is cryptic on the white daisy Chrysanthemum frutescens to the human eye, is highly conspicuous to ultraviolet-sensitive insect prey — but that, instead of repelling foraging honeybees as might be expected, the contrast of the spider against the petals makes the flowers more attractive. Expand
Fluorescent Enhancement of Signaling in a Mantis Shrimp
Fluorescence has more potential to contribute to color underwater than in terrestrial situations, because the optical properties of water spectrally filter both the incident and the reflected light. Expand
Fluorescent signaling in parrots.
It remains a mystery whether naturally occurring fluorescence functions as a signal or is a by-product of pigment structure, but here, it is tested. Expand
Colourful objects through animal eyes
To understand how bees, birds, and fish may use colour vision for food selection and mate choice, we reconstructed views of biologically important objects taking into account the receptor spectralExpand
Color choices by bumble bees (Bombus terrestris): innate preferences and generalization after learning
  • A. Gumbert
  • Biology
  • Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
  • 2000
Bumble bees show innate preferences for certain colors not only prior to color learning but also after intensive learning when choosing among very different novel colors. Expand
Detection of bright and dim colours by honeybees.
Honeybees, Apis mellifera, were trained to detect coloured disks with either a strong or a weak intensity difference against the background, showing that target detection is independent of whether the colour is presented as a background or as a target in combination with the other colour. Expand
Ultraviolet vision in a bat
It is shown that a phyllostomid flower bat, Glossophaga soricina, is colour-blind but sensitive to ultraviolet light down to a wavelength of 310 nm, indicating that excitation of the β-band of the visual pigment is the most likely cause of ultraviolet sensitivity. Expand
A novel method using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of betaxanthins.
Fluorescence detection was applied to the quantification of betaxanthins present in Carpobrotus acinaciformis, opening up new possibilities for the analysis of betxanthins by improving existing protocols through fluorescence detection. Expand
Betaxanthins as Substrates for Tyrosinase. An Approach to the Role of Tyrosinase in the Biosynthetic Pathway of Betalains1
The biosynthetic scheme of betalains is reviewed and a branch is proposed based on the description of physiological substrates for tyrosinase, indicating that dopaxanthin-quinone is obtained and evolves to more stable species by intramolecular cyclization. Expand
Symmetry perception in an insect
Bees show a predisposition for learning and generalizing symmetry because, if trained to it, they choose it more frequently, come closer to and hover longer in front of the novel symmetrical stimuli than the bees trained for asymmetry do for the novel asymmetrical stimuli. Expand