Botanophila—Epichloë Interaction in a Wild Grass, Puccinellia distans, Lacks Dependence on the Fly Vector

  title={Botanophila—Epichlo{\"e} Interaction in a Wild Grass, Puccinellia distans, Lacks Dependence on the Fly Vector},
  author={Karolina G{\'o}rzyńska and Marlena Lembicz and Ziemowit Olszanowski and Adrian Leuchtmann},
ABSTRACT In grass-infecting Epichloë (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae) fungi, the transfer of spermatia for fungal fertilization depends on an insect vector: flies of the genus Botanophila (Diptera: Anthomyiidae). The flies use the fungal stroma, a spore-producing fungal structure surrounding the grass inflorescence, for laying eggs and as a food source for both adults and larvae. This fly—fungus interaction is generally regarded as obligatory and mutualistic. Two Botanophila taxa were noted… 

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