Bose-Einstein condensation

  title={Bose-Einstein condensation},
  author={Christopher Townsend and Wolfgang Ketterle and Sandro Stringari},
  journal={Physics World},
In 1924 the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose sent Einstein a paper in which he derived the Planck law for black-body radiation by treating the photons as a gas of identical particles. Einstein generalized Bose's theory to an ideal gas of identical atoms or molecules for which the number of particles is conserved and, in the same year, predicted that at sufficiently low temperatures the particles would become locked together in the lowest quantum state of the system. We now know that this… 

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