# Bose-Einstein condensation

@article{Townsend1997BoseEinsteinC, title={Bose-Einstein condensation}, author={Christopher Townsend and Wolfgang Ketterle and Sandro Stringari}, journal={Physics World}, year={1997}, volume={10}, pages={29-36} }

In 1924 the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose sent Einstein a paper in which he derived the Planck law for black-body radiation by treating the photons as a gas of identical particles. Einstein generalized Bose's theory to an ideal gas of identical atoms or molecules for which the number of particles is conserved and, in the same year, predicted that at sufficiently low temperatures the particles would become locked together in the lowest quantum state of the system. We now know that this…

## 3,603 Citations

### Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases

- PhysicsTechnical Digest. 1998 EQEC. European Quantum Electronics Conference (Cat. No.98TH8326)
- 1998

The discovery of the superfluid transition of liquid helium [1, 2] marked the first achievement of Bose–Einstein condensation in the laboratory, more than a decade after Einstein’s prediction for an…

### Satyendra Nath Bose: Quantum statistics to Bose-Einstein condensation

- Physics
- 2022

: Satyendra Nath (S.N.) Bose is one of the great Indian scientists. His remarkable work on the black body radiation or derivati on of Planck’s law led to quantum statistics, in particular, the…

### Bose-Einstein Condensation of Gases in the Frame of Quantum Electrodynamics: Interconnection of Constituents

- Physics
- 2008

Bose-Einstein condensate of rarified atomic gases is considered as the state formed by exchange of virtual photons, resonant to the lowest levels of atoms; such representation corresponds to the…

### Bose-Einstein condensation with evaporatively cooled atoms

- Physics
- 1996

The recent developments in the study of Bose-Einstein condensation of neutral atoms are described. These studies aim to observe this phenomenon in a Bose gas where the quantum statistics of the…

### Understanding Hawking radiation from simple models of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates

- Physics
- 2012

This chapter is an introduction to the Bogoliubov theory of dilute Bose condensates as applied to the study of the spontaneous emission of phonons in a stationary condensate flowing at supersonic…

### A Study of Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Two-Dimensional Trapped Gas

- Physics
- 1997

We examine the possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in two-dimensional (2D) system of interacting particles in a trap. We use a self-consistent mean-field theory of Bose particles…

### Bose gas to Bose-Einstein Condensate by the Phase Transition of the Klein-Gordon equation

- Physics
- 2012

We rewrite the complex Klein-Gordon (KG) equation with a mexican-hat scalar field potential in a thermal bath with one loop contribution as a new Gross-Pitaevskii (GP)-like equation. We interpret it…

### Bose-Einstein condensates—a new form of quantum matter

- Physics
- 1996

We review the recent achievements in observing Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in magnetically-trapped gases, and summarize our own studies of BEC in sodium. Thermal sodium atoms were optically…

### Bose-Einstein condensation of relativistic Scalar Field Dark Matter

- Physics
- 2009

Standard thermodynamical results of ideal Bose gases are used to study the possible formation of a cosmological Bose-Einstein condensate in Scalar Field Dark Matter models; the main hypothesis is…