Borreliacidal activity of saliva of the tick Amblyomma americanum

  title={Borreliacidal activity of saliva of the tick Amblyomma americanum},
  author={Kathryn Elen Ledin and Nordin S. Zeidner and Jose M. C. Ribeiro and Brad J. Biggerstaff and Marc C. Dolan and Gabrielle Dietrich and Larisa K. Vredevoe and Joseph F. Piesman},
  journal={Medical and Veterinary Entomology},
Abstract.  Amblyomma americanum (Linneaus) (Acari: Ixodidae), an important tick vector of human and animal disease, is not a competent vector of the bacterial agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, although its range overlaps the geographical distribution of Lyme disease within the United States. A possible mechanism that could prevent acquisition of B. burgdorferi spirochetes from infected hosts is the toxic effect of A. americanum saliva on B. burgdorferi. The data presented here… 

Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks Are Not Vectors of the Lyme Disease Agent, Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirocheatales: Spirochaetaceae): A Review of the Evidence

It is concluded that A. americanum is not a vector of B. burgdorferi, a transovarially transmitted relapsing fever Borrelia of uncertain clinical significance, and in Lyme disease-endemic areas, A.Americanum commonly feeds on B. burglari-infected hosts; the extremely low prevalence in this tick results from a saliva barrier to acquiring infection from infected hosts.

Borrelia burgdorferi Not Confirmed in Human-Biting Amblyomma americanum Ticks from the Southeastern United States

The results do not support the hypothesis that A. americanum ticks are a vector for Lyme group Borrelia infections, and nonspecific amplification and nonrepeatability of results on subsequent testing of samples are observed.

Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.

This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement.

Kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Larvae of Refractory and Competent Tick Vectors

Collective results indicate suboptimal conditions for B. burgdorferi uptake and colonization within A. americanum or the presence of anti-Borrelia factor(s) in this nonpermissive tick species.

Evolving models of Lyme disease spirochete gene regulation

T trace studies performed to elucidate regulatory mechanisms employed by Borrelia burgdorferi to control gene expression, and the development of models or "paradigms" to explain experimental results indicate that current models of interpreting in vitro data cannot accurately predict all aspects of B. burgdorFERi environmental sensing and gene regulation in vivo.

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in tick feces provides evidence for organism shedding during vector feeding.

Fecal DNA samples from infected ticks indicated that B. burgdorferi were shed from feeding ticks during defecation and suggest that the spirochetes did not remain viable once exposed to the outside environment.

Reviewing molecular adaptations of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in the context of reproductive fitness in natural transmission cycles

  • J. Tsao
  • Biology
    Veterinary research
  • 2009
Molecular interactions among the LB spirochete, its vector, and vertebrate hosts are reviewed in the context of natural maintenance cycles, which represent the ecological and evolutionary contexts that shape these interactions.

Borrelia burgdorferi Not Detected in Widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from White-Tailed Deer in Tennessee

The absence of detectable B. burgdorferi infection among these ticks suggests that the LD risk posed by I. scapularis in the surveyed areas of Tennessee is much lower than in LD-endemic areas of the Northeast and upper Midwest.



Ability to Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) to acquire, maintain, and transmit Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi).

Although I. scapularis was a competent laboratory vector for Borrelia burgdorferi, natural populations of this tick taken from white-tailed deer and white-footed mice in Alabama were not infected with spirochetes.

Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from saliva of the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis

A comparison of the protein profiles of the salivary isolates showed that the salive isolates all lacked a 22-kDa protein known to increase with continuous passage, but exhibited larger amounts of the OspA and OspB proteins than did the highly passaged B31 strain.

Intrinsic competence of three ixodid ticks (Acari) as vectors of the Lyme disease spirochete.

Although larvae of all three tick species became infected by ingesting spirochetes while feeding on experimentally infected mice, only I. dammini remained infected following the transstadial molt, suggesting that ofThese findings suggest that of these threetick species, only ixodes dammini is competent as a vector of the Lyme disease spiroChete.

The ascendancy of Amblyomma americanum as a vector of pathogens affecting humans in the United States.

Until the 1990s, Amblyomma americanum was regarded primarily as a nuisance species, but a tick of minor importance as a vector of zoonotic pathogens affecting humans. With the recent discoveries of

Ability of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi to infect rodents and three species of human-biting ticks (blacklegged tick, American dog tick, lone star tick) (Acari:Ixodidae).

I. scapularis was the only species that proved to be vector competent for B. burgdorferi strains inoculated into mice and efficiently maintained these spirochetes transstadially and transmitted infection as nymphs.

Inability of Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi.

The vector competency of Ixodes cookei Packard and Amblyomma americanum (L.) for Borrelia burgdorferi was studied using Syrian hamsters and transmission was demonstrated only by I. dammini nymphs.

Attempted transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) (JDI strain) by Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), Dermacentor variabilis, and Amblyomma americanum.

Laboratory-reared Ixodes scapularis Say, Amblyomma americanum (L.), and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) were fed on New Zealand white rabbits experimentally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi (JDI

Risk of Lyme disease: perceptions of residents of a Lone Star tick-infested community.

The residents of Gibson Island had an exaggerated perception of the risk of Lyme disease because they were intensely infested with an aggressively human-biting and irritating nonvector tick, suggesting a reaction to the bite itself rather than true Lyme disease.

First Culture Isolation of Borrelia lonestari, Putative Agent of Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness

This study describes the first successful isolation of B. lonestari in culture, providing a much needed source of organisms for the development of diagnostic assays and forming a basis for future studies investigating the role of the organism as a human disease agent.

Isolation and transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete from the southeastern United States.

Transmission experiments indicate that the three Georgia isolates can infect experimentally inoculated hamsters and mice and Tick transmission of one of the isolates has been attempted so far; I. scapularis transmitted isolate SI-1 from hamsters to mice, but the lone-star tick, Amblyomma americanum, did not.