Boosting slow oscillations during sleep potentiates memory

  title={Boosting slow oscillations during sleep potentiates memory},
  author={Lisa Marshall and Halla Helgad{\'o}ttir and Matthias M{\"o}lle and Jan Born},
There is compelling evidence that sleep contributes to the long-term consolidation of new memories. This function of sleep has been linked to slow (<1 Hz) potential oscillations, which predominantly arise from the prefrontal neocortex and characterize slow wave sleep. However, oscillations in brain potentials are commonly considered to be mere epiphenomena that reflect synchronized activity arising from neuronal networks, which links the membrane and synaptic processes of these neurons in time… 
Transcranial Slow Oscillation Stimulation During Sleep Enhances Memory Consolidation in Rats
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It is shown that no neuronal firing occurs in the neocortex during silent states of slow-wave sleep but some synaptic activities might be observed prior to the onset of active states, which was in agreement with the hypothesis.
Transcranial slow oscillatory stimulation drives consolidation of declarative memory by synchronization of the neocortex
A novel type of transcranial ‘intermittent’ slow oscillatory stimulation was applied over the frontal cortex during early stage-two sleep with the purpose of inducing endogenous slow oscillations and slow spindle activity.
Sleep to Remember
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A central role for consolidating memories is played by the slow oscillation, that is, the oscillating field potential change dominating SWS, which synchronizes the occurrence of sharp wave ripples accompanying memory reactivations in the hippocampus with thalamocortical spindle activity.
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This review provides a concise overview of how the sleeping brain transforms and builds persisting memories through this process, highlighting hippocampal replay that captures episodic memory aspects and brain oscillations hallmarking slow-wave and rapid-eye movement sleep.
Triggering sleep slow waves by transcranial magnetic stimulation
TMS triggering of slow waves reveals intrinsic bistability in thalamocortical networks during non-rapid eye movement sleep and leads to a deepening of sleep and to an increase in EEG slow-wave activity, which is thought to play a role in brain restoration and memory consolidation.
Neural oscillations during non‐rapid eye movement sleep as biomarkers of circuit dysfunction in schizophrenia
The evidence for disrupted slow, spindle and ripple oscillations in schizophrenia is reviewed, linking pathophysiological mechanisms to the functional impact of these neurophysiological changes and drawing links with the cognitive symptoms that accompany this condition.
Neurostimulation techniques to enhance sleep and improve cognition in aging


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    Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
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Far from being epiphenomena, with no functional role, NREM sleep oscillations, particularly spindles and their experimental model augmenting responses, produce synaptic plasticity in target cortical neurons and resonant activity in corticothalamic loops, as in "memory" processes.
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It is shown that declarative memory benefits mainly from sleep periods dominated by SWS, whereas there is no consistent benefit of this memory from periods rich in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
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Results support the notion that the depolarizing surface-positive phase of the slow oscillation and the associated up state of prefrontal excitation promotes hippocampal SPWs via efferent pathways.
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The results show that spindle-associated spike discharges are efficient in modifying excitatory neocortical synapses according to a Hebbian rule, in support of a role for sleep spindles in memory consolidation.
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It is suggested that sleep patterns in the limbic system are essential for the preservation of experience-induced synaptic modifications, and the subcortical effects of hippocampal sharp wave bursts may be critical in the release of various hormones which, in turn, may affect synaptic plasticity.
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A novel state present during deactivated stages of sleep and anesthesia that is characterized by a prominent large-amplitude and slow frequency (≤1 Hz) rhythm is described, called the hippocampal slow oscillation (SO), which may present a favorable milieu for synchronization-dependent synaptic plasticity within and between hippocampal and neocortical ensembles.
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These results provide the first evidence in humans of grouping of spindle and beta activity duringslow oscillations and support the concept that phases of cortical depolarization during slow oscillations, reflected by surface-positive (depth-negative) field potentials, drive the thalamocortical spindle activity.
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation during Sleep Improves Declarative Memory
Effects of tDCS involve enhanced generation of slow oscillatory EEG activity considered to facilitate processes of neuronal plasticity, which may facilitate sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories.