Revision surgery for particle-induced implant loosening in total joint replacement is expected to increase dramatically over the next few decades. This study was designed to investigate if local tissue and serum markers of bone remodeling reflect implant fixation following administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-doped polyethylene (PE) particles in a rat model. Twenty-four rats received bilateral implantation of intramedullary titanium rods in the distal femur, followed by weekly bilateral intra-articular injection of either LPS-doped PE particles (n = 12) or vehicle that contained no particles (n = 12) for 12 weeks. The group in which the particles were injected had increased serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), decreased serum osteocalcin (OC), increased peri-implant eroded surface, decreased peri-implant bone volume, and decreased mechanical pull-out strength compared to the controls. Implant fixation strength was positively correlated with peri-implant bone volume and serum OC and inversely correlated with serum CTX-I, while energy to yield was positively correlated with serum OC and inversely correlated with the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive cells at the interface and the amount of peri-implant eroded surface. There was no effect on trabecular bone volume at a remote site. Thus, the particle-induced impaired fixation in this rat model was directly associated with local and serum markers of elevated bone resorption and depressed bone formation, supporting the rationale of exploring both anticatabolic and anabolic strategies to treat and prevent particle-related implant osteolysis and loosening, and indicating that serum markers may prove useful in tracking implant fixation.