Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study.

@article{Pollock2010BonemineralDA,
  title={Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study.},
  author={Noel Pollock and Claire Grogan and Mark Perry and Charles R. Pedlar and Karl Cooke and Dylan Morrissey and Lygeri Dimitriou},
  journal={International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism},
  year={2010},
  volume={20 5},
  pages={
          418-26
        }
}
Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is associated with menstrual dysfunction and negative energy balance in the female athlete triad. This study determines BMD in elite female endurance runners and the associations between BMD, menstrual status, disordered eating, and training volume. Forty-four elite endurance runners participated in the cross-sectional study, and 7 provided longitudinal data. Low BMD was noted in 34.2% of the athletes at the lumbar spine, and osteoporosis in 33% at the radius. In… 

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Bone mineral density in high-level endurance runners: Part B—genotype-dependent characteristics

Novel associations between P2RX7 rs3751143 genotype and BMD in female runners are reported, whilst differences in BMD between male runners and non-athletes with the same WNT16 rs3801387 genotype existed, highlighting a potential genetic interaction with factors common in endurance runners, such as high levels of mechanical loading.
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