Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study.

@article{Pollock2010BonemineralDA,
  title={Bone-mineral density and other features of the female athlete triad in elite endurance runners: a longitudinal and cross-sectional observational study.},
  author={Noel Pollock and Claire Grogan and Mark Perry and Charles R. Pedlar and Karl Cooke and Dylan Morrissey and Lygeri Dimitriou},
  journal={International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism},
  year={2010},
  volume={20 5},
  pages={
          418-26
        }
}
Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is associated with menstrual dysfunction and negative energy balance in the female athlete triad. This study determines BMD in elite female endurance runners and the associations between BMD, menstrual status, disordered eating, and training volume. Forty-four elite endurance runners participated in the cross-sectional study, and 7 provided longitudinal data. Low BMD was noted in 34.2% of the athletes at the lumbar spine, and osteoporosis in 33% at the radius. In… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Bone mineral density in high-level endurance runners: part A—site-specific characteristics
TLDR
Given the large variability in BMD in runners and non-athletes, other factors such as variation in genetic make-up alongside mechanical loading probably influence BMD across the adult lifespan.
Bone mineral density, rib pain and other features of the female athlete triad in elite lightweight rowers
TLDR
Results suggest IWL and high-level training at a young age increases the likelihood of DE and there may be a lack of quality nutritional support for these athletes.
Bone Health in Endurance Athletes: Runners, Cyclists, and Swimmers
TLDR
The variable effects of distance running, cycling, swimming, and triathlons on bone health; the evaluation of stress and fragility fractures; and the diagnosis, management, and prevention of low BMD in endurance athletes are reviewed.
Bone parameters of elite athletes with oligomenorrhea and prevalence seeking medical attention: a cross-sectional study
TLDR
More than 40% of the elite-level female track and field athletes in this study reported menstrual disorders with oligomenorrhea as the most common, however, none sought medical attention.
Energy availability and the female athlete triad in elite endurance athletes
TLDR
Conclusively, athletes with low/reduced EA and/or MD had lowered RMR, and the high prevalence of ED, MD, and impaired bone health emphasizes the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of energy deficiency.
Profile of the female athlete triad among elite Kenyan endurance athletes and non-athletes
TLDR
The hypothesized higher prevalence of the TRIAD among athletes compared to non-athletes was partially accepted and both athletes and their coaches need regular education to ensure they adequately meet specific dietary and nutritional requirements for their competition events.
One-year changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in premenopausal amateur runners: a prospective study.
TLDR
It is suggested that long-distance running at the recreational level may be useful in maintaining bone health in premenopausal women and may have additive effects on the bone parameters in these runners.
Bone mineral density in high-level endurance runners: Part B—genotype-dependent characteristics
TLDR
Novel associations between P2RX7 rs3751143 genotype and BMD in female runners are reported, whilst differences in BMD between male runners and non-athletes with the same WNT16 rs3801387 genotype existed, highlighting a potential genetic interaction with factors common in endurance runners, such as high levels of mechanical loading.
THE EFFECTS OF FREQUENCY AND VOLUME OF TRAINING AND DIETS ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN FOOTBALLERS AND WRESTLERS
TLDR
Bone mineral density of wrestlers who train for longer durations with more mechanical loading to bone mass with anaerobic system and who take more vitamin, mineral and carbohydrate was found to be higher than those of footballers and sedentary group.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 37 REFERENCES
Factors Affecting Bone Loss in Female Endurance Athletes
TLDR
The rate of bone loss in all three subgroups of female athletes was unexpectedly high; neither estrogen nor vitamin K supplementation prevented bone loss.
Menstrual state and exercise as determinants of spinal trabecular bone density in female athletes.
TLDR
The effect of intensive exercise on the lumbar spine partially compensates for the adverse effect of amenorrhoea on spinal trabecular bone density.
Dietary restraint and low bone mass in female adolescent endurance runners.
TLDR
Findings suggest that, in adolescent female runners, dietary restraint may be the DE behavior most associated with negative bone health effects.
Menstrual function and bone mass in elite women distance runners. Endocrine and metabolic features.
TLDR
Bone mass and metabolic features were studied in women distance runners and found that intense exercise may reduce the impact of amenorrhea on bone mass; however, amenorrheic runners remain at high risk for exercise-related fractures.
Low vertebral bone density values in young non-elite female runners.
TLDR
It is shown that very young female runners with oligo-amenorrhea may have impressively low bone mineral density values, and the possibility that early onset of training, close to menarcheal age, might be a risk factor for low mineral density, deserves further investigation.
Disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, and bone mineral density in female runners.
TLDR
Examination of the relationships between disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, and low bone mineral density (BMD) in young competitive female distance runners concluded that disorderedeating is strongly related to menstrual irregularness, menstruation irregularity is associated with low BMD, and disordered Eating is associatedwith low B MD in the absence of menstrual irregularities.
The Effect of Exercise Training Programs on Bone Mass: A Meta-analysis of Published Controlled Trials in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women
TLDR
The weighted OTs for the RCTs showed very consistently that the exercise training programs prevented or reversed almost 1% of bone loss per year in both LS and FN for both pre- and postmenopausal women, which gives an indication of the confounding introduced by the nonrandom allocation of the subjects to groups.
...
1
2
3
4
...