BACKGROUND In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, malnutrition is common with loss of muscle mass and decreased bone mineral density (BMD), increasing the risk of morbidity. OBJECTIVE To compare body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) between CKD patients and healthy subjects, and relate these parameters with energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake. METHODS Body composition was assessed 30 haemodialysis patients and compared with 28 healthy volunteers with DEXA. In patients, three 24 hours records of dietary intake were filled. RESULTS A significantly lower BMD (p < 0.01) and BMC (p < 0.0) were found in CKD patients. There was a trend for patients to have lower fat free mass (FFM) than controls (p = 0.06). In men, differences in BMD and BMC lost significance when adjusting for fat mass FM (%) and FFM (kg). In CKD, 34.5% and 27.6% of patients had an adequate intake of energy and protein, respectively. However, it was observed a deficit of energy and protein intake in 31.0% and 44.8% of patients, respectively. No significant correlation was found in CKD patients between macronutrient and calcium intake and BMD or BMC. CONCLUSIONS CKD have lower BMD and BMC than healthy volunteers. These differences lost significance in men, after adjusting for body composition parameters. A poor dietary adequacy was found in most patients with CKD, but no association was observed between these variables and body composition or bone mineral density.