Renal mass reduction, such as unilateral nephrectomy induces a compensatory hypertrophy of remaining renal mass in response to overload induced by reduction of functional renal parenchyma. In our recent study, we observed that the recovery of ischemic injured kidney following transient unilateral renal ischemia took longer time than that following transient bilateral renal ischemia, indicating that non-damaged kidney may affect the damaged kidney and vice versa. Here, we investigated whether transient and partial renal parenchymal injury by transient unilateral renal ischemia (UI) results in the hypertrophy of its contralateral kidney (CLK) and reactive oxygen species is associated with the hypertrophy. Thirty minutes of UI resulted in gradual increase in CLK weight over time. UI increased superoxide formation, but not lipid peroxidation in the CLK. After UI, a significant increase in the number of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-expressing cells and the level of Nox2 expression in the CLK was observed. In parallel with the increases in Nox2-expressing cells in CLKs, infiltration of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC) increased in CLK. Treatments with Mn(III) Tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic) and apocynin (a putative NADPH oxidase inhibitor) inhibited UI-induced hypertrophy of CLK along with reduction in Nox2-positive cell, BMDC, amount of Nox2 expression and superoxide formation. In conclusion, transient and partial renal mass reduction by UI resulted in the hypertrophy of CLK through increased ROS formation by infiltrated cells into the interstitium of CLK.