The effects of cyclophosphamide (CY) and levan at low (0.1 mg) and high (10 mg) doses (previously found to inhibit and stimulate, respectively, B16 melanoma growth) were studied. in single and combined administration, on the blood and bone marrow of C57BL mice. Very marked changes in the cellular composition of blood and bone marrow were induced by the various treatments. CY caused a sharp depletion of leukocytes in blood and bone marrow followed by a restoration of granulocytes while lymphocytes remained low. Levan caused a sharp dose-dependent depletion in bone marrow lymphocytes. Blood lymphocytes were not affected, however, by the polysaccharide. With the high levan dose, after a temporary granulocytopenia and monocytopenia, prominent granulocytosis was observed. While CY affected equally the different types of cells, levan decreased the number of lymphocytes and erythroblasts to a greater degree than the number of granulocytes. In the combined CY-levan treatments, the low levan dose generally attenuated the suppressive effect of CY, while the high concentration aggravated it.