Bone histology indicates insular dwarfism in a new Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur

  title={Bone histology indicates insular dwarfism in a new Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur},
  author={P. Martin Sander and Octávio Mateus and Thomas Laven and Nils Kn{\"o}tschke},
Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest animals ever to inhabit the land, with truly gigantic forms in at least three lineages. Small species with an adult body mass less than five tonnes are very rare, and small sauropod bones generally represent juveniles. Here we describe a new diminutive species of basal macronarian sauropod, Europasaurus holgeri gen. et sp. nov., and on the basis of bone histology we show it to have been a dwarf species. The fossils, including excellent skull material, come… 

Cranial anatomy of the Late Jurassic dwarf sauropod Europasaurus holgeri (Dinosauria, Camarasauromorpha): ontogenetic changes and size dimorphism

All the autapomorphic characters of Europasaurus recognized in the skull are considered to have evolved through paedomorphosis, which resulted in the dwarf condition of this taxon.

Bone histology reveals the first record of titanosaur (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Bulgaria

The fossil record of Mesozoic tetrapods in Bulgaria is sparse and currently limited to the Maastrichtian limestones of the Kajlâka Formation. Herein we report on two bone fragments from the Upper

Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria)

The uniquely decreased growth rate and diminutive body size in Magyarosaurus were adaptations to life on a Cretaceous island and show that sauropod dinosaurs were not exempt from general ecological principles limiting body size.

A juvenile Diamantinasaurus matildae (Dinosauria: Titanosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Winton Formation of Queensland, Australia, with implications for sauropod ontogeny

ABSTRACT Although sauropod dinosaur bones are the most abundant vertebrate fossils found in the Upper Cretaceous Winton Formation of northeast Australia, only subadult and adult specimens have been

An ontogenetic series and population histology of the ceratopsid dinosaur Einiosaurus procurvicornis

The nature of the bone tissue suggests that growth in Einiosaurus is still relatively rapid in even the largest specimens, indicating that a fully adult tibia has not been recovered from the studied bonebed, and this bonebed is biased toward juveniles and subadults.

Postcranial axial skeleton of Europasaurus holgeri (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Upper Jurassic of Germany: implications for sauropod ontogeny and phylogenetic relationships of basal Macronaria

The postcranial axial skeleton of sauropods is extremely modified with respect to the anatomy observed in its ancestors, the ‘prosauropods’, proving to be one of the most informative regions of the body.

Ontogenetic stages in the long bone histology of sauropod dinosaurs

It is hypothesize that sexual maturity was attained at HOS-8, well before maximum size was attained, but it did not find sexually differentiated growth trajectories subsequent to HOS -8, and Histologic ontogenetic stages generally correlate closely with body size and thus provide a means to resolve important issue like the ontogenetics status of questionable specimens.

Long bone histology indicates sympatric species of Dimetrodon (Lower Permian, Sphenacodontidae)

Histological analysis of newly excavated material from the Briar Creek Bonebed has resolved some of the discretion between these two competing hypothesis, confirming the coexistence of a small (D. natalis) with at least one larger Dimetrodon species.

Osteohistological insight into the early stages of growth in Mussaurus patagonicus (Dinosauria, Sauropodomorpha)

The bone histology of juvenile specimens of the basal sauropodomorph Mussaurus patagonicus is described and its significance is interpreted in terms of the early growth dynamics of this taxon.

Osteohistology of Rapetosaurus krausei (Sauropoda: Titanosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous of Madagascar

The largest known Rapetosaurus was still growing, whereas some small juveniles exhibit an unusual pattern of bone erosion and replacement in the context of peripheral lines of arrested growth that signal a temporary pause in bone apposition, and it is hypothesize that these signals may relate to the drought-stressed ecosystem inhabited by Rapetaurus.



Longbone histology of the Tendaguru sauropods: implications for growth and biology

  • P. M. Sander
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2000
A new sampling technique for fossil bone (coring with a 5/8” bit) was used to sample longbones of all four sauropod genera from the Upper Jurassic Tendaguru beds of Tanzania for paleohistological study, showing a common growth pattern in which growth is determinate but sexual maturity is achieved well before maximum size is reached.


Abstract Sauroposeidon proteles, a new brachiosaurid sauropod, is represented by an articulated series of four mid-cervical vertebrae recovered from the Antlers Formation (Aptian–Albian) of

The smallest of the largest: a new look at possible dwarfing in sauropod dinosaurs

A preliminary re-evaluation of Nopcsa's claims and their heterochronic consequences is presented using two approaches, viz. regression analysis of humeral data as a means of establishing patterns in body size among titanosaurids, and optimisation of Humeral data onto titanosurid cladograms to evaluate evolutionary trends within the clade.

Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia

This taxon indicates that there was a rapid radiation and dispersal of dicraeosaurids in the Late Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, after the separation of Gondwana from the northern continents by the late Middle Jurassic.

Cortical growth marks reveal extended juvenile development in New Zealand moa

It is shown that cortical growth marks are frequent in long bones of New Zealand's moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes), a recently extinct ratite order, which indicates that reproductive maturity in moa was extremely delayed relative to all extant birds.

Sauropod dinosaur phylogeny: critique and cladistic analysis

A lower-level phylogenetic analysis of Sauropoda is presented, which resolves six sauropod outgroups to Neosauropoda, which comprises the large-nostrilled clade Macronaria and the peg-toothedclade Diplodocoidea.

Comparative osteohistology of some embryonic and perinatal archosaurs: developmental and behavioral implications for dinosaurs

Variations in this set of histological synapomorphies overlap between birds and non-avian dinosaurs, and this overlap reinforces the hypothesis that variations in bone growth strategies in Mesozoic dinosaurs reflect different life-history strategies, including nesting behavior of neonates and parental care.

Assessing dinosaur growth patterns: a microscopic revolution.

  • G. Erickson
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Trends in ecology & evolution
  • 2005

Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs

Growth patterns within the Tyrannosauridae are studied and it is determined that Tyrannosaurus rex's great stature was primarily attained by accelerating growth rates beyond that of its closest relatives.