Two kinds of tri-calcium phosphate ceramics (Ca/P = 1.50), alpha-TCP and beta-TCP, which has the same macrostructure and microstructure, but different phase composition, were implanted in dorsal muscles of dogs. The samples were retrieved at 30, 45 and 150 days, respectively, after implantation, and were analyzed histologically. There were critically different tissue responses between alpha-TCP ceramic and beta-TCP ceramic. Higher cell populations were observed inside the pores of beta-TCP than those of alpha-TCP, bone tissue was found in beta-TCP at 45 and 150 days, but no bone formation could be detected in any alpha-TCP implants in this study. On the other hand, the bone tissue in beta-TCP seemed to degenerate at 150 days. The results indicate that porous beta-TCP can induce bone formation in soft tissues of dogs; while the rapid dissolution of the ceramic and the higher local Ca2+, PO(4)3- concentration due to the rapid dissolution of alpha-TCP may resist bone formation in alpha-TCP and the less rapid dissolution of beta-TCP may be detrimental to already formed bone in beta-TCP.