Bone and muscle loss after spinal cord injury: organ interactions

  title={Bone and muscle loss after spinal cord injury: organ interactions},
  author={Weiping Qin and William A. Bauman and Christopher P. Cardozo},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in paralysis and marked loss of skeletal muscle and bone below the level of injury. Modest muscle activity prevents atrophy, whereas much larger—and as yet poorly defined—bone loading seems necessary to prevent bone loss. Once established, bone loss may be irreversible. SCI is associated with reductions in growth hormone, IGF‐1, and testosterone, deficiencies likely to exacerbate further loss of muscle and bone. Reduced muscle mass and inactivity are assumed to… 

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