# Bond graph modelling of the cardiac action potential: implications for drift and non-unique steady states

@article{Pan2018BondGM, title={Bond graph modelling of the cardiac action potential: implications for drift and non-unique steady states}, author={Michael Pan and Peter J. Gawthrop and Kenneth Tran and Joseph Cursons and Edmund J. Crampin}, journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences}, year={2018}, volume={474} }

Mathematical models of cardiac action potentials have become increasingly important in the study of heart disease and pharmacology, but concerns linger over their robustness during long periods of simulation, in particular due to issues such as model drift and non-unique steady states. Previous studies have linked these to violation of conservation laws, but only explored those issues with respect to charge conservation in specific models. Here, we propose a general and systematic method of…

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