Neuromedin: An insight into its types, receptors and therapeutic opportunities.
We have tested the effect of bombesin (BN) and BN-related peptides on the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) by rat alveolar macrophages. BN incubated with AM alone had no direct effect on IL-1 release. However, at concentrations ranging from 10(-11) M to 10(-6) M, BN significantly enhanced IL-1 release by AM activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A typically U-shaped dose-response relationship was observed with maximal effect obtained between 10(-9) M and 10(-8) M. BN also potentiated the stimulatory effects of other IL-1 inducers including muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The 2- to 3-fold enhancement in IL-1 production seen with BN was blocked by the bombesin receptor antagonist [Leu13,-psi(CH2NH)Leu14]-Bombesin. Furthermore, bombesin-related peptides, gastrin-releasing peptides, (GRP)-27 and GRP-10 also potentiated the stimulatory effects of LPS whereas Neuromedin B (NeB) had no effect. These results suggest that BN-related peptides might play an important role as local modulator(s) of cytokine production and inflammatory reactions in the lung.