Boltzmann's Approach to Statistical Mechanics

  title={Boltzmann's Approach to Statistical Mechanics},
  author={Sheldon Goldstein},
In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, Ludwig Boltzmann explained how irreversible macroscopic laws, in particular the second law of thermodynamics, originate in the time-reversible laws of microscopic physics. Boltzmann’s analysis, the essence of which I shall review here, is basically correct. The most famous criticisms of Boltzmann’s later work on the subject have little merit. Most twentieth century innovations —such as the identification of the state of a physical system with a… 

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