Body mass index, alcohol, tobacco and symptomatic gallstone disease: a Swedish twin study.


BACKGROUND/AIMS Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease (GD). We aimed to examine the association between symptomatic GD and overweight (body mass index, BMI, 25-30 kg m(-2)), obesity (BMI > 30 kg m(-2)), alcohol, smoking and smoke-free tobacco by analysing a large twin population. METHODS The Swedish… (More)


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