Body image and attitudes toward male roles in anabolic-androgenic steroid users.

@article{Kanayama2006BodyIA,
  title={Body image and attitudes toward male roles in anabolic-androgenic steroid users.},
  author={Gen Kanayama and Steven Barry and James I Hudson and Harrison G Pope},
  journal={The American journal of psychiatry},
  year={2006},
  volume={163 4},
  pages={
          697-703
        }
}
OBJECTIVE The authors sought to expand on previous observations suggesting that body-image pathology is associated with illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). In particular, the authors compared current versus past AAS users and short-term versus long-term users in this respect. METHOD The authors assessed 89 heterosexual men who lifted weights regularly-48 AAS users and 41 nonusers-on measures of self-esteem, attitudes toward male roles, body image, eating-related attitudes and… 

Tables from this paper

nabolic steroid use and body image psychopathology in men : elineating between appearance-versus performance-driven otivations
TLDR
Motivation for AAS use may be important in accounting for differential profiles of body image psychopathology amongst users, and men whose AASUse is driven primarily by appearance-related concerns may be a particularly dysfunctional subgroup.
Physical appearance concerns are uniquely associated with the severity of steroid dependence and depression in anabolic–androgenic steroid users
TLDR
Limitations notwithstanding, the study is consistent with the notion that AAS users who experience appearance concerns are at heightened risk of co-morbid psychological dysfunction, and suggests that health-care systems may need to consider prioritising the sub-population of Anabolic-androgenic steroid users who experienced appearance concerns.
A Review of Body Image Influences on Men's Fitness Goals and Supplement Use
TLDR
Gay men are more likely than heterosexual men to experience a desire to be thin and are at greater risk for eating and body image disorders, and these issues are discussed in this article.
Treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: Emerging evidence and its implications.
Illicit anabolic–androgenic steroid use
Body Image and Eating Disturbance in African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men: Preliminary Observations
TLDR
Although most body image measures were similar to norms, self-ideal discrepancy for muscularity was almost three times greater than male weightlifters and use of appearance-changing supplements and substances was frequently reported.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 42 REFERENCES
Body image and steroid use in male bodybuilders.
TLDR
The results suggest that male bodybuilders are at risk for body image disturbance and the associated psychological characteristics that have been commonly reported among eating disorder patients and appear to predict steroid use in this group of males.
Adolescent body image and attitudes to anabolic steroid use.
TLDR
Anabolic steroid use was strongly motivated by social influences, some knowledge of beneficial effects, and denial of adverse effects in white adolescent males in the study population.
Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use in men.
Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use among weightlifters: a case-control study.
Psychiatric and Medical Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in Women
TLDR
Dedicated women athletes exhibit not only AAS abuse, but use of many other ergogenic drugs, sometimes associated with significant morbidity, and frequently display several psychiatric syndromes which have not previously been well described.
A preliminary investigation into the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroid use and the symptoms of reverse anorexia in both current and ex-users
TLDR
AAS use, but not body building per se, was associated with increased symptoms of reverse anorexia, and this symptomatology was higher in those who had higher scores on the SDS for AAS.
Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
TLDR
Although prevalence of AAS dependency is difficult to determine, and there might be as many as 300,000 AAS users yearly in the United States, it appears that only a small percentage of users experience psychological dependence requiring clinical treatment.
Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. A controlled study of 160 athletes.
  • H. Pope, D. Katz
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1994
TLDR
Major mood disturbances associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids may represent an important public health problem for athletes using steroids and sometimes for the victims of their irritability and aggression.
Anorexia nervosa and "reverse anorexia" among 108 male bodybuilders.
Psychiatric effects and psychoactive substance use in anabolic-androgenic steroid users.
TLDR
In conclusion, AAS use may lead to psychiatric disorders in certain individuals and concurrent use of psychoactive drugs other than AAS does not appear to be common in intensively training weight lifters and bodybuilders.
...
...