Body Form, Locomotion and Foraging in Aquatic Vertebrates

@article{Webb1984BodyFL,
  title={Body Form, Locomotion and Foraging in Aquatic Vertebrates},
  author={Paul W. Webb},
  journal={Integrative and Comparative Biology},
  year={1984},
  volume={24},
  pages={107-120}
}
  • P. Webb
  • Published 1 February 1984
  • Biology
  • Integrative and Comparative Biology
Four functional categories are denned to embrace the range of locomotor diversity of aquatic vertebrates; (1) body/caudal fin (BCF) periodic propulsion where locomotor movements repeat, as occurs in cruising and sprint swimming; (2) BCF transient propulsion where kinematics are brief and non-cylic, as occurs in fast-starts and powered turns; (3) median and paired fin (MPF) propulsion, with very diverse fin kinematics, used in slow swimming and precise maneuver; (4) occasional propulsion or “non… 

Figures from this paper

Fish functional design and swimming performance
TLDR
Biomimetic approaches to the development of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles have given a ness context and impetus to research and this is discussed in relation to current views of fish functional design and sustaining performance.
Locomotion and the Cost of Hunting in Large, Stealthy Marine Carnivores.
TLDR
It is found that intermittent locomotion in the form of extended glides, burst-and-glide swimming, and rollercoaster maneuvers while hunting silverfish resulted in a marked energetic savings for the diving seals relative to continuously stroking, and translated into exceptionally low transport costs during hunting (COTHUNT) for diving mammals.
The scaling of locomotor performance in predator-prey encounters: from fish to killer whales.
  • P. Domenici
  • Environmental Science
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • 2001
Labriform propulsion in fishes: kinematics of flapping aquatic flight in the bird wrasse Gomphosus varius (Labridae)
TLDR
Both the alternating sign of the hydrodynamic angle of attack and the observed reduced frequencies suggest that unsteady effects are important in G. varius aquatic flight, especially at low speeds.
Functional morphology of endurance swimming performance and gait transition strategies in balistoid fishes
TLDR
Geometric morphometrics reveal that fin and body shapes are good predictors of endurance swimming performance and gait transition strategies of triggerfishes and filefishes.
Why does Gila elegans have a bony tail? A study of swimming morphology convergence.
Kinematics and energetic benefits of schooling in the labriform fish, striped surfperch Embiotoca lateralis
TLDR
It is estimated that for an energetic advantage to occur in a school of striped surfperch as a whole, more than 78% of the individuals need to be in trailing positions, which is likely to be a common occurrence based on previous observations of other schooling species.
Comparative Morphology of Locomotion in Vertebrates
TLDR
Four kinematic processes are identified that illustrate the divergence of modes of locomotion, from an ancestral undulatory lateral movement to the different modes seen in recent vertebrates, and can be illustrated in the ontogeny of both frogs and rodents.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 118 REFERENCES
Swimming in the electric eels and knifefishes
  • R. Blake
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • 1983
TLDR
It is concluded that fish swimming in the gymnotiform mode may be subject to significantly less viscous drag than fish of equivalent size swimming at the same speed in the subcarangiform mode.
Kinematics of Pectoral Fin Propulsion in Cymatogaster Aggregata
TLDR
Interactions between pectoral fin-beat frequency, amplitude, refractory phase and kinematic patterns were interpreted as a mechanism to permit the propulsive muscles to operate at optimum efficiency and power output over a wider range of swimming speeds than would otherwise be possible.
On seahorse locomotion
  • R. Blake
  • Biology
    Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • 1976
TLDR
In relinquishing the demands of speed the seahorse has released itself from restrictions which would limit its possible range of form.
The swimming energetics of trout. I. Thrust and power output at cruising speeds.
  • P. Webb
  • Environmental Science
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1971
TLDR
The relationship between thrust and swimming speed was extended into the sprint-speed range and it was calculated that fish could reach a maximum sprint speed maintained for 1 sec, provided that drag was reduced by about a half, or that the power required was that to accelerate the fish to that speed.
Optimal Fish Cruising Speed
TLDR
It is shown that regulating the swimming speed can increase the performance and efficiency of motion by appreciable amounts.
Limit of fish swimming speed
TLDR
The tail beat frequency or frequency of strides is considered to be limited by the contraction time of the swimming muscle of the fish, and maximum observed swimming speeds are found to fit the dimensions of the muscle twitch time and stride length.
Mouth and Body Form Relative to Feeding Ecology in the Fish Fauna of a Small Lake, Lake Opinicon, Ontario
In 14 cohabiting fish species in a small freshwater lake, mouth and body structures combine with food specializations and habitat preferences to greatly restrict interspecific competition within the
Undulatory median fin propulsion of two teleosts with different modes of life
TLDR
It is shown that the propulsive efficiency of the dorsal fin of G. niloticus can be up to twice that of H. hudsonius at similar swimming speeds.
Effects of Partial Caudal-Fin Amputation on the Kinematics and Metabolic Rate of Underyearling Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) At Steady Swimming Speeds
TLDR
Comparison with observations on extracted organisms indicates that a change in the direction of beat of 9° is associated with an increase in calcium concentration at the ciliary apparatus of about 25%.
Fast-start Performance and Body Form in Seven Species of Teleost Fish
Fast-start kinematics and performance were determined for Etheostoma caeruleum, Cottus cognatus, Notropis cornutus, Lepomis macrochirus, Perca flavescens, Salmo gairdneri and a hybrid Esox sp. at an
...
...