Blueprints for complex learning: The 4C/ID-model

  title={Blueprints for complex learning: The 4C/ID-model},
  author={Jeroen J. G. van Merri{\"e}nboer and Richard E. Clark and M.B.M. de Croock},
  journal={Educational Technology Research and Development},
This article provides an overview description of the four-component instructional design system (4C/ID-model) developed originally by van Merriënboer and others in the early 1990s (van Merriënboer, Jelsma, & Paas, 1992) for the design of training programs for complex skills. It discusses the structure of training blueprints for complex learning and associated instructional methods. The basic claim is that four interrelated components are essential in blueprints for complex learning: (a… 

Dynamic Selection of Learning Tasks According to the 4C/ID-Model.

Van Merrienboer’s fourcomponent instructional design model describes how learning tasks fulfill the role of a backbone for an integrated curriculum, and two requirements for this backbone are: learning tasks are organized in easy-todifficult task classes (the dotted boxes around sets of learning tasks).

Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model Approach for Teaching Programming Skills

The purpose of this study is to adapt the principles of the model for teaching technical skills by using four-component instructional design model (4C/ID) within software programming to provide a new different approach to program developers, instructors and designers.

Teaching Design on Training Complex Cognitive Skills Based on Engineering Drawing

Based on the comparative testing vocational skill, the results shows that the performance of learners who take the 4C/ID-mode (class B) are superior to the ones’ whotake the conventional teaching modeling (class A) in terms of grades and workload.

Developing clinical reasoning in the classroom - analysis of the 4C/ID-model.

  • T. C. PostmaJ. G. White
  • Education
    European journal of dental education : official journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
  • 2015
It is recommended that the 4C/ID-model be considered as a basis for classroom teaching and learning to develop competence in clinical reasoning in undergraduate dental students, even at pre-clinical level.

The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning: The Four-Component Instructional Design Model: Multimedia Principles in Environments for Complex Learning

This chapter discusses the use of the 4C/ID model to design multimedia learning environments in which instruction is controlled by the system, the learner, or both; 22 multimedia principles are related to each of the four components and instructional control.

Four component instructional design (4C/ID) model confirmed for secondary tertiary mathematics

Cognitive Load Theory’s Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) Model has been used in mathematics education but not confirmed as an instructional theory. Using the Factors Influencing College

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From lecture to learning tasks: use of the 4C/ID model in a communication skills course in a continuing professional education context.

This model was used to design a continuing education course on communication skills for health professionals in a context that is hierarchical and communal and moves the paradigm from lectures to learning tasks to better prepare learners for real practice.

Whole-Task Models in Education

Whole-task models support the development of educational programs for students who need to learn and transfer professional competences or complex cognitive skills to an increasingly varied set of

The Perception of 4C/ID Based Learning Materials: Two Studies into the Motivational Effects of Learning with Complex Tasks

Examining higher education students’ perceptions in two separate studies, it can be concluded that students perceive positive changes in the 4C/ID module, but that the effects on perceived control, relatedness and control are small, and it is concluded that a systematic incorporation of motivational processes into the 4 C/ID model would be a valuable supplement.



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Just-in-time information presentation and the acquisition of complex cognitive skills

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It is hypothesized that during practice, the direct availability of examples in the form of incomplete computer programs facilitates the acquisition of programming language templates, especially because students cannot complete a program without carefully studying it so that “mindful abstraction” is explicitly provoked.